El Salvador is one of the most violent countries in Latin America with a homicide rate of over 100 per 100,000 individuals. Gang membership is common and more prevalent in El Salvador than in the United States (AP, 2021). For instance, gang membership is a social phenomenon with Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) and the 18th Street Gang (M-8) being the most known and lethal gangs in El Salvador. Violent crimes and gangs are associated with low educational levels and high poverty levels in El Salvador (Paarlberg, 2022). However, gangs in the U.S. are associated with socioeconomic status but in their entirety. Gang members in El Salvador are poor and come from lower income households and families. Gangs in the United States mainly have territorial areas of interest and fight wars to keep their regions from rival gangs.
Cultural factors are essential when planning nursing care for patients like Jose Calderon who has fled El Salvador because he does not want to be a gang member because they affect a patient’s attitude to treatment interventions. In this case, the cultural factors include language, practices and attitude to use of medical interventions (Andrews et al., 2022). The other cultural factors include their use of traditional and alternative therapies and perception of spirituality. Body tattoos are an integral part of personal identity for many individuals. Some are cultural identities in other cultures among immigrants with a gang membership.
Different issues related to political asylum, immigration and associated factors impact access to healthcare by immigrant individuals and populations (Andrews et al., 2022). These issues include limited resources and lack of a legal status, insufficient information, and language barrier that impact their ability to seek healthcare treatment (Sagar & Sagar, 2018). I would help Jose meet his developmental needs by ensuring that he has access to quality care services, especially based on cultural competence that considers the cultural background as an immigrant. Integration in the U.S. society will be problematic due to the need for a language that he understands, integration into the culture, and illegal status that will complicate his stay (Purnell & Fenkl, 2020). The problems he may encounter in the healthcare system is cultural competent care among providers who may not have sufficient cultural knowledge about El Salvador and dealing with gang-related issues. Jose may also have language barrier and may have to make out-of-pocket payments since he lacks a health insurance.
Andrews, M., Boyle, J. S. & Collins, J. (2022). Transcultural Concepts in Nursing Care 8th
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Edition. Wolters Kluwert Health. Philadelphia, PA.
Associated Press (AP). (2021 December 8). US accuses El Salvador of secretly negotiating truce
with gang leaders. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/dec/08/el-salvador-us-gang-leaders-truce
Paarlberg, M. (2022). The Emerging Gang State in El Salvador.
Purnell, L. D., & Fenkl, E. A. (Eds.). (2020). Textbook for transcultural health care: A
population approach: Cultural competence concepts in nursing care. Springer Nature.
Sagar, P. L., & Sagar, D. Y. (2018). Current state of transcultural nursing theories, models, and
approaches. Annual review of nursing research, 37(1), 25-41.
For this discussion, first, read chapter 7 in your textbook, Transcultural Concepts in Nursing Care.
Use the Critical Thinking Activity #5 on page 234 in your textbook to respond to the following questions:
Explain the difference between gang membership in El Salvador and the United States.
What are the cultural factors that are important to consider when you are planning nursing care for a patient like Jose?
For an example, how do you view body tattoos?
What are the issues related to political asylum, immigration, and the like?
How would you assist Jose to meet his developmental needs?
What might be the problems he will encounter in the U.S. society?
What might be the problems he will encounter in the U.S. healthcare system?
critical #5 has been sent Via email