Pharmacology Sepsis Essay
Human beings are affected by different health conditions requiring pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic management. Sepsis is a life-threatening health condition that individuals may experience globally. Sepsis is a medical emergency that occurs following the body’s response to infection and can be life-threatening (Martínez et al., 2020). Sepsis leads to widespread inflammation of the body, and the inflammation and resulting blood clotting lead to the reduced blood supply to vital body organs and limbs. Organ failure and death can occur following the health condition. Following early initiation of treatment, the disease can be managed, but serious complications can occur following mismanagement. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate the prescription and non-prescription therapies for sepsis, monitoring of therapy, the side effects of the therapy and drug interactions, and the pharmacologic treatment plan for sepsis based on age.
Prescription and Non Prescription Medications for Sepsis
The excellent news about sepsis is that it can be managed using prescription and non-prescription medication. The management of sepsis depends on the causative agent and the severity of the disease. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are the first class of prescription medications used to manage sepsis. Broad-spectrum medications are administered as they can against a large spectrum of bacteria (Martínez et al., 2020). The typical broad-spectrum medications administered entail ceftriaxone, meropenem, vancomycin, penicillin, and gentamicin. Broad-spectrum medications can be used as combination therapy or single therapy. The broad-spectrum medications should be started as soon as possible as other cultures are being awaited to reveal the causative agent of sepsis.
Secondly, administer intravenous fluids to the patients. The intravenous fluids should be administered as soon as possible to replace fluids that maybe lost following vomiting, chills, and other routes of fluid loss (Niederman et al., 2021). Thirdly administer vasopressor medication. After administering intravenous fluids, the drugs constrict the blood vessels following the persistent low blood pressure. Pain killer medication, sedatives, and drugs that modify the immune system response should also be administered to the patients. Medications increasing the contractility of the heart muscles encompassing dobutamine or milrinone should be administered. Epinephrine and norepinephrine should be administered to increase the contractility of the heart muscles.
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Non-Prescription Therapies for Sepsis
Several non-pharmacologic treatment modalities are available for the management of sepsis. Administration of packed red blood cells is the first treatment modality for the health condition. The aim is always to increase the amount of blood and oxygen flow in the body(Cavaillon et al., 2020). Secondly, provide good nutrition to the septic patient. Maintaining the nutrition status is an essential aspect of the management process of sepsis. The patients should be fed using the gastrointestinal tube. Fluids can also be administered to maintain the nutrition status of the patients.
Monitoring of Patients with Sepsis
Following the management of septic patients, healthcare providers are responsible for monitoring patients’responses to the treatment. Blood tests, cultures, and other screening and diagnostic tests should evaluate the causative organism’s eradication. The levels of drugs in the body should be monitored. A liver functions test should be done to evaluate the functioning of the liver organ(Gale & Hall, 2020). Healthcare providers should also perform complete blood counts to monitor the blood parameters in the body. The physicians should also conduct kidney function tests to determine the body’s electrolytes level. Sepsis may have a significant impact on the kidney, hence monitoring.
The patient’s input and output should be monitored to evaluate the patients’ nutritional status(Gale & Hall, 2020). The patient’s vital signs should be monitored frequently following the medication administration. Moreover, monitor for any side effects and allergic reactions that may occur following the administration of the medications
Side Effects of Sepsis Medications
Several side effects may arise from the use of medications. First,the gastrointestinal tract, once affected, will cause digestive problems such as vomiting,diarrhea, indigestion of food, nausea, losing appetite, and stomach pain. According to doctors ‘ instructions, taking medications with empty stomachs can reduce side effects.Secondly,some Medications may kill normal flora of various organs hence causing diseases such as oral or vaginal candidiasis(Sarah Riding, 2018).Third,some antibiotics such as doxycycline or levofloxacin, when taken for sepsis treatment, can affect the skin by making it more sensitive to light, causing skin discoloration and itching.Moreover, antibiotics such as tetracyclines may cause stains of skin,teeth, and other body parts.
Drug-Drug Interactions During Sepsis Treatment
Taking different medications for sepsis management can lead to a drug to drug interactions. Drug-to-drug interactions do have a significant effect on individual health following the treatment. The effectiveness of a drug may be reduced following drug-to-drug interaction(Charlton & Thompson, 2019). The drug concentration in the body can also be elevated following drug-to-drug interactions. Some drug-to-drug interactions reduce the concentration of antibiotics administered in the body. An example of a Drug-Drug interaction is when a septic patient simultaneously uses warfarin and fluconazole.Secondly, drug interactions can occur when patients take erythromycin or doxycycline and still use alcohol.Septic patients are therefore advised to avoid alcohol strictly.
Desired Outcome For Pharmacological Agents Used In The Treatment Of Sepsis
There are several desired outcomes when one uses pharmaceutical agents to treat sepsis. One of the desired outcomes is restoring the blood levels in the body following treatment. Secondly, the patient’s vital signs should be at optimum levels. Thirdly, the oxygen saturation in the body should be at the optimum level following the treatment(Kim & Park, 2019). All the complications associated with sepsis infections should be prevented as much as possible.
The Pharmaceutical Treatment Plan For Pediatric Patients With Sepsis
Different pharmacologic treatment plans are available for sepsis depending on the patient’s age. For the young children diagnosed with sepsis, broad-spectrum medications are administered to manage the possible bacterial cause of the sepsis. Blood cultures should be done to determine the exact cause of sepsis in the child. All the antibiotic medications used to manage sepsis for young children should be safe and high efficacy(Cruz et al., 2020). Monitor the respiratory and cardiologic function of the pediatric as frequently as possible. Ensure adequate hydration and nutrition for the patient during the treatment plan.
The Pharmaceutical Treatment Plan for Geriatrics Patients with Sepsis
There are several treatment plans for elder patients diagnosed with sepsis.First, regular oxygen administration should ensure a good oxygen supply in tissues and blood. Secondly, the administration of antibiotics in the intravenous routes to kill bacteria is of significant impact (Cavaillon et al., 2020).Third, administration of fluid through intravenous routes to restore fluid balance and blood pressure in the body is essential to a Septic patient.
Sepsis is among the most life-threatening diseases in the world. The health condition can be managed following early initiation of the treatment and management. Broad-spectrum antibiotics should always be the first-line medication for the management of sepsis and should be initiated as soon as possible. Blood cultures should be done to determine the exact cause of the sepsis.
Cavaillon, J., Singer, M., &Skirecki, T. (2020). Sepsis therapies: learning from 30 years of failure of translational research to propose new leads. EMBO Molecular Medicine, 12(4). https://doi.org/10.15252/emmm.201810128
Charlton, M., & Thompson, J. P. (2019). Pharmacokinetics in sepsis. BJA Education, 19(1), 7–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjae.2018.09.006
Cruz, A. T., Lane, R. D., Balamuth, F., Aronson, P. L., Ashby, D. W., Neuman, M. I., Souganidis, E. S., Alpern, E. R., &Schlapbach, L. J. (2020). Updates on pediatric sepsis. Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians Open, 1(5), 981–993. https://doi.org/10.1002/emp2.12173
Gale, B. M., & Hall, K. K. (2020). The Use of Patient Monitoring Systems to Improve Sepsis Recognition and Outcomes: A Systematic Review. Journal of Patient Safety, 16(3), S8–S11. https://doi.org/10.1097/pts.0000000000000750
Kim, H. I., & Park, S. (2019). Sepsis: Early Recognition and Optimized Treatment. Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases, 82(1), 6. https://doi.org/10.4046/trd.2018.0041
Martínez, M. L., Plata-Menchaca, E. P., Ruiz-Rodríguez, J. C., & Ferrer, R. (2020). An approach to antibiotic treatment in patients with sepsis. Journal of Thoracic Disease, 12(3), 1007–1021. https://doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2020.01.47
Niederman, M. S., Baron, R. M., Bouadma, L., Calandra, T., Daneman, N., DeWaele, J., Kollef, M. H., Lipman, J., & Nair, G. B. (2021). Initial antimicrobial management of sepsis. Critical Care, 25(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-021-03736-w
Select a disease or condition. For example, sepsis, CAD, HCAP, HAP, hypertension, CHF, atrial fibrillation, depression, Parkinson’s disease, hyperlipidemia, COPD, asthma, or febrile neutropenia.
Write a 750-1,000 word paper discussing prescription and nonprescription medications/therapies for the treatment of the disease. Discuss monitoring and identify significant adverse effects and drug-drug interactions, as well as desired outcomes of the pharmacological agents used in the treatment of the disease. Determine an appropriate pharmaceutical treatment plan for the disease or condition. Incorporate considerations for various populations (geriatrics, pediatrics) depending on the disease you have selected.
You are required to cite three to five sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.