Pediatric Bipolar Disorder Essay

Pediatric Bipolar Disorder Essay

Pediatric Bipolar Disorder Essay

Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric mood disorder characterized by alternating hypomania/manic episodes with depression. Bipolar 1 presents with alternating episodes of mania (elevated and irritable mood) and major depression. Bipolar 2 has a mildly elevated mood and low-grade depression (Martini et al., 2021). The purpose of this blog is to educate a caregiver about pediatric Bipolar disorder, including the signs and symptoms, pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapy, community resources, and referrals.

Signs and Symptoms

A child/adolescent with Bipolar disorder will present with symptoms of mania and depression. The classic symptom of the manic episode is an abnormal, usually expansive, and elevated mood that lasts for about one week. The child has a severely elevated mood and increased psychomotor activity and is generally overactive and restless (Cichoń et al., 2020). The child/adolescent also has a reduced need for sleep, racing thoughts, excessive planning, talkative, pressured speech, and thoughts and ideas out of control. In addition, the child is usually alert and tries to engage in many goal-directed activities, thus never finishing any task, and they have poor judgment (Cichoń et al., 2020). Furthermore, the child/adolescent engages in reckless and risk-taking behaviors, is hypersexual, and may believe that they possess special powers. A child with hypomania in Bipolar 1 has less severe symptoms and often does not present with psychotic symptoms. However, they have inflated self-esteem and are over-involved in pleasurable activities.


Pharmacological Therapy

Medication for Bipolar in children and adolescents includes mood stabilizers and second-generation antipsychotics. Mood stabilizers have previously been the mainstay of treatment for bipolar disorder and include drugs like lithium carbonate, carbamazepine, and sodium Divalproex (Gautam et al., 2019). Atypical antipsychotics are increasingly being used in treating bipolar disorder in patients with or without psychotic symptoms. However, it is important to note that all drugs used in bipolar disorder in children/adolescents pose a risk of side effects or interactions with other medications (Yee et al., 2019). Consequently, ensure that you discuss this with your child’s provider and weigh the risks against the potential benefits.

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Non-Pharmacological Therapy

Non-pharmacological therapy for Bipolar disorder includes psychotherapy, which is an adjunct to medication therapy. Psychotherapy interventions that are helpful in pediatric bipolar disorder include interpersonal therapy (IPT), cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), family therapy, and group therapy. It is vital that you participate in family therapy as the child’s caregiver since it helps in reducing family stress, improves family communications, and offers a forum to discuss unresolved (Weinstein et al., 2018). The family members are helped to adjust to the effect on the family system.

Community Resources and Referrals

Relevant resources for children/adolescents with Bipolar include the Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance (DBSA) and the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP). DBSA has a support network for caregivers of children with mood disorders. AACAP commits to assisting children, adolescents, and families with mental, behavioral, and developmental problems. Children with Bipolar disorder are referred to psychiatrists, behavioral and developmental pediatricians, psychologists, and social workers (Martini et al., 2021). These providers are involved in developing the child’s treatment plan, monitoring the response to therapy and medication tolerance, and offering psychotherapy to the child and family.


Children with Bipolar disorder present with manic episodes that alternate with depression. The manic episodes present with elevated mood, inflated self-esteem, and increased psychomotor activity. Medications used include mood stabilizers and second-generation antipsychotics. Non-pharmacological treatment includes CBT, individual, family, and group psychotherapy.


Cichoń, L., Janas-Kozik, M., Siwiec, A., & Rybakowski, J. K. (2020). Clinical picture and treatment of bipolar affective disorder in children and adolescents. Obraz kliniczny i leczenie choroby afektywnej dwubiegunowej u dzieci i młodzieży. Psychiatria polska54(1), 35–50.

Gautam, S., Jain, A., Gautam, M., Gautam, A., & Jagawat, T. (2019). Clinical Practice Guidelines for Bipolar Affective Disorder (BPAD) in Children and Adolescents. Indian journal of psychiatry61(Suppl 2), 294–305.

Martini, J., Leopold, K., Pfeiffer, S., Berndt, C., Boehme, A., Roessner, V., Fusar-Poli, P., Young, A. H., Correll, C. U., Bauer, M., & Pfennig, A. (2021). Early detection of bipolar disorders and treatment recommendations for help-seeking adolescents and young adults: Findings of the Early Detection and Intervention Center Dresden. International journal of bipolar disorders9(1), 23.

Weinstein, S. M., Cruz, R. A., Isaia, A. R., Peters, A. T., & West, A. E. (2018). Child- and Family-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Applications for Suicide Prevention. Suicide & life-threatening behavior48(6), 797–811.

Yee, C. S., Hawken, E. R., Baldessarini, R. J., & Vázquez, G. H. (2019). Maintenance Pharmacological Treatment of Juvenile Bipolar Disorder: Review and Meta-Analyses. The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology22(8), 531–540.


Bipolar disorder, mood disorder Need a case study on Bipolar disorder on a 15-year-old who is exhibiting manic behavior. Or a male or female of any age with any Mood disorders. Course NURS 6660 Week 5 assignment.Presented tot the hospital in an emergency Detention for assaultive and dangerous behavior ,suicidal gesturePatient has have long-term history of substance use and mood instability and ooositional defiant behavior,non-compliance with medication.
Presumptive diagnosis Mental Health :Bipolar disorder, unspecific substance Abuse Amphetamine use disorder, Intellectual or developmental disability ,
Medical No

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