NSG 5002 Week 3 Nursing Theory Sources Essay
Nursing Theory Sources
Ideas, questions, and phenomena within the domain of nursing are the sources of ideas for theory development.
Initially, nursing was almost completely dependent on other disciplines for sources of theoretical content in order to provide the underpinnings of nursing practice. This allowed other disciplines, particularly medicine, to dictate the problems of nursing instead of allowing nursing to generate its own questions.
In the early days of nursing education, theoretical content was derived from the domain of medicine, as the medical paradigm was far more powerful and better developed. Thus, medicine controlled nursing theory and, as a result, the domain of its knowledge.
At the same time, nursing practice was also taking the first tentative steps toward becoming a source of theory. The patient, as the recipient of care, and actual nursing acts formed the focus of early theory development, and this change in focus reflects the initial efforts to differentiate nursing and medicine.
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Consequently, nurses’ experience became a major source of theory because nursing care knowledge was based on personal experiences, transmitted through apprenticeship, teaching, and texts.
In the recent times, nursing theory has originated from:
- Role Proliferation: Conceptualization of nursing as a set of functions became the focus of investigation, with theory evolving on how to prepare nurses for various roles.
- Basic Sciences: PhD education of nurses in sociology, psychology, anthropology, and physiology introduced ideas from other disciplines and stimulated new ways of looking at nursing phenomena.
- Nursing Process: Examination of processes in nurse-patient relationships and patient care triggered ideas and questions related to problem solving, priority setting, and decision making.
- Nursing Diagnosis: Labels were given to and a universal nomenclature was developed for problems that fall within the domain of nursing. These are actually conceptual statements about the health status of patients and, therefore, the first step in theory development.
- Concept Identification: Theory development encouraged identification of concepts central to nursing. Identification of relationships between concepts (propositions) defined a new nursing perspective.
NSG 5002 Week 3 Nursing Theory Sources Week 3 Project
Your “Personal Philosophy and Theoretical Concepts” Paper is due this week. Your paper should contain the following sections:
- Nursing Autobiography: A brief (1 page) discussion of your background in nursing. This does not include future goals.
- The Four Metaparadigms: Describe what the literature says about the basic four metaparadigms/concepts of patient, nurse, health, and environment. Do not relate the metaparadigms to the theory you have chosen.
- Briefly describe the theory you have chosen.
- Two Practice-Specific Concepts: in separate subsections discuss each of your two concepts:
- What is the definition of the concept (outside of the theory)?
- How does your theorist define your concept?
- How does this concept apply to your clinical setting? Give an example of how nurses in your area provide care that correlates with the theorist’s definition of the concept.
You MUST use the attached template here to complete your paper.
The paper is to be thoroughly researched and well documented, with relevant material from the nursing theorists presented incorporated into the paper. Use the current edition of the APA Manual throughout the paper. Sources should focus on references from nursing theory but may also include conceptual and theoretical material from other professional domains.
The paper, excluding references or appendices, is to be limited to 3-5 pages. Writing should be succinct and well organized, as it is impossible for the facilitator to evaluate form and content separately.
NSG 5002 Week 3 Nursing Theory Sources Submission Details:
- Save your document as W3_Project_NSG5002_Lastname_Firstname.
- Submit your document to the Submissions Area by the due date assigned.
The identification of nursing theory sources that are compatible with nursing work and accommodate the nursing perspective paved the way for the emergence of nursing philosophies. Nursing philosophy consists of assumptions and beliefs that guide the framework of nursing practice. This philosophy encompasses societal and individual human experiences (Salsberry, 1994)1, and addresses two central areas of commonality: the nature of human beings and the focus of nursing.
Inherent fundamental assumptions provide the foundation of nursing philosophy. These philosophies help nurses to identify the focus of nursing as something quite different from that of the biomedical sciences.
Nursing philosophies also initiate reflective practice and encourage nursing professionals—from the novice to the expert—to explore their own values regarding health, nursing, and interaction with clients.
Though there are numerous philosophies and conceptualizations which have been developed over the past few decades, in this course we’ll be focusing on only a select few which have guided nursing endeavors.
Philosophy of Virginia Henderson
NSG 5002 Week 3 Nursing Theory Sources: Week 3 Discussion
A phenomenon is the term used to describe a perception or responses to an event. Examples of phenomena in nursing include caring and responses to stress. Assumptions are the ideas that we take for granted. They explain the nature of the concepts in the theory, giving it structure.
Choose a middle-range theory or grand theory that, in your opinion, can be applied to research.
- What is the phenomenon of concern in this theory?
- What are the assumptions underpinning this theory?
NSG 5002 Week 3 Nursing Theory Sources Submission Details
- In your discussion question response, provide a substantive response that illustrates a well-reasoned and thoughtful response; is factually correct with relevant scholarly citations, references, and examples; and demonstrates a clear connection to the readings.
- Post your response to the Discussion area by the assigned due date.
- Be sure to correct any spelling, grammar, or punctuation errors before you post.
- By the end of day four (4), respond to at least 2 of your peers’ submissions. In your participation responses to your peers, comments must demonstrate thorough analysis of postings and extend meaningful discussion by building on previous postings.
Note: Review South University’s Substantive Participation Policy Criteria, Helpful Tips, and Late Policy available by clicking on the South University Policy and Guidelines navigation tab here. The late policy applies to late discussion question responses.
NSG 5002 Week 3 Nursing Theory Sources Rubric
- 0 points
- 13 points
- 16 points
- 18 points
- 20 points
Quality of Initial Posting
- No initial posting exists to evaluate.
- The information provided is inaccurate, not focused on the assignment’s topic, and/or does not answer the question(s) fully. Response demonstrates incomplete understanding of the topic and/or inadequate preparation.
- The information provided is accurate, giving a basic understanding of the topic(s) covered. A basic understanding is when you are able to describe the terms and concepts covered. Despite this basic understanding, initial posting may not include complete development of all aspects of the assignment.
- The information provided is accurate, displaying a good understanding of the topic(s) covered. A good understanding is when you are able to explain the terms and topics covered. Initial posting demonstrates sincere reflection and addresses most aspects of the assignment, although all concepts may not be fully developed.
You have done a very good job with your initial post. You have addressed the main components of the assignment, but you may want to take some time to reinforce your understanding on some of the topics for the week and be sure to answer every question asked as part of the assignment going forward.
This table lists criteria and criteria group name in the first column. The first row lists level names and includes scores if the rubric uses a numeric scoring method.
- 0 points
- 6 points
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Participation in Discussion
- No responses to other classmates were posted in this discussion forum.
- May include one or more of the following:
*Comments to only one other student’s post.
*Comments are not substantive, such as just one line or saying, “Good job” or “I agree.
*Comments are off topic.
- Comments to two or more classmates’ initial posts but only on one day of the week. Comments are substantive, meaning they reflect and expand on what the other student wrote.
- Comments to two or more classmates’ initial posts on more than one day. Comments are substantive, meaning they reflect and expand on what the other student wrote.
- Comments to two or more classmates’ initial posts and to the instructor’s comment (if applicable) on two or more days. Responses demonstrate an analysis of peers’ comments, building on previous posts. Comments extend and deepen meaningful conversation and may include a follow-up question.
You have done an outstanding job in your discussion this week with your classmates. You have a great level of substance and you have contributed to the dialog in a very meaningful way. This is what a discussion should look like!
This table lists criteria and criteria group name in the first column. The first row lists level names and includes scores if the rubric uses a numeric scoring method.Writing
- 0 points
- 6 points
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- 10 points
Writing Mechanics (Spelling, Grammar, Citation Style) and Information Literacy
- No postings for which to evaluate language and grammar exist.
- Numerous issues in any of the following: grammar, mechanics, spelling, use of slang, and incomplete or missing citations and references. If required for the assignment, did not use course, text, and/or outside readings (where relevant) to support work.
- Some spelling, grammatical, and/or structural errors are present. Some errors in formatting citations and references are present. If required for the assignment, utilizes sources to support work for initial post but not comments to other students. Sources include course/text readings but outside sources (when relevant) include non-academic/authoritative, such as Wikis and .com resources.
- Minor to no errors exist in grammar, mechanics, or spelling in both the initial post and comments to others. Formatting of citations and references is correct. If required for the assignment, utilizes sources to support work for both the initial post and the comments to other students. Sources include course and text readings as well as outside sources (when relevant) that are academic and authoritative (e.g., journal articles, other text books, .gov Web sites, professional organization Web sites, cases, statutes, or administrative rules).
Overall, you have done a good job with your communication and citation for this assignment, but you need to be cautious of citation formatting errors and be sure to use credible academic sources in all of your assignment submissions. If you need any help on citations or formatting, you can learn more here: Citations 101
Rubric Total Score
Total 36 / 40
Overall Score – NSG 5002 Week 3 Nursing Theory Sources
No Submission 0 points minimum
- There was no submission for this assignment.
- Satisfactory progress has not been met on the competencies for this assignment.
- Satisfactory progress has been achieved on the competencies for this assignment.
- Proficiency has been achieved on the competencies for this assignment.
The competencies for this assignment have been mastered.
NSG 5002 Week 3 Nursing Theory Sources (Example Discussion Approach)
Kristen Swanson’s Theory
Kristen Swanson’s middle-range theory, The Theory of Healing and Caring (1991), was created for women who miscarried, the neonatal intensive care unit caregivers who are the parents and healthcare professionals, and for any at-risk mothers. Swanson (1991, p.162) defined caring as, “a nurturing way of relating to a valued other toward whom one feels a personal sense of commitment and responsibility”.
She felt that by adopting her five concepts into the care that is provided, the professional could focus on the patient not so much on the tasks. The five concepts are known as maintaining belief, knowing, being with, doing for, and enabling. Butts and Rich (2017, p.552) states, “ Swanson believed when a provider takes the time to know, be with, do, enable, and maintain belief in the other, the recipient feels a sense of wholeness”.
Kristen Swanson quickly had an interest in caring at the very beginning of nursing school at a clinical site when she witnessed the nursing professional and primary care. Swanson credits other theorists who helped influence her beliefs and theory such as Dr. Jacqueline Fawcett and Dr. Jean Watson.
Fawcett inspired her through understanding the relationship of caring for others and their well-being. Watson and Swanson’s parallel work was based on research and crediting each others work, all while seeing the individuality in each one. Furthermore, Dr. Kathryn M. Bernard encouraged Swanson to test her caring theory in randomized trials. (Peterson and Bredow, 2017, p.139)
Phenomenon of Concern
The main concern of Swanson’s theory is actually defining what caring is. If you were to speak to each nurse in this profession, majority will say that they became a nurse because they care. However, that could mean something different to each nurse and can be displayed in various ways. Peterson and Bredow (2017, p.136) state, “Over the past few decades, philosophical debates, research, and theory development have ensued to define the concept of caring, articulate caring behaviors, and identify outcomes of caring for patients, families, nurses, organizations, and society”.
Each person can show how he or she care in different ways and the outcome can vary depending on how the person receives it. Furthermore, Peterson and Bredow (2017, p.136) state, “Also of deep concern is detecting and eliminating barriers to caring in clinical practice”. Many times, us nurses forget about the main reason we can into this profession and its not due to carelessness but to the overwhelming and increasing amounts of tasks we are required to do mostly from management.
Redundant and unnecessary paperwork takes away from the bedside where we need to show our caring capabilities to overall improve patient care.
One assumption Swanson identifies is that caring is not solely limited to nursing, yet it is a component from the nurse and patient relationship. This can occur in any nurse-patient relationships that possess the five concepts. Another assumption is that caring does not come from the amount of nurses’ experience but from attitude, understanding the experience, having verbal and nonverbal conversations with the patient, enabling, and the outcome of the patient.
Peterson and Bredow (2017, p.140) identifies another assumption as, “caring processes coexist and overlap and cannot be delivered in a linear way or in separation from one another”. The last assumption is that if Swanson identified the definition of caring is a more clear way, than her theory could be applied to any relationship.
In summary, The Theory of Healing and Caring by Kristen Swanson was focused on three phenomenons: the grieving mother, the NICU caregiver, and the at risk mother. Caring is not only for nursing but can be applied to any relationship. By utilizing the five concepts, the nurse can focus on the patient through caring rather than the tasks. Swanson was inspired by many theorists but understood the individuality between hers and Dr. Watsons’ theory.
Caring can be understood and shown in different ways. Jarvis (2019, p.266) states, “Defined as such, caring is an abstract concept that must be clarified in terms of concrete concepts”. Caring does not come from the nurses experience but by the attitude and outcome toward the patient. When defined clearly, caring can be applied to any working relationship.
NSG 5002 Week 3 Nursing Theory Sources References
- Butts, J. B., & Rich, K. L. (2017). Philosophies and theories for advanced nursing practice (3rd ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.
- Jarvis, K. (2019). Swanson’s Theory of Caring: An Application to the Role of Nursing Education. International Journal for Human Caring, 23(3), 266–271. https://doi-org.su.idm.oclc.org/10.20467/1091-5710.23.3.266
- Peterson, S. J., & Bredow, T. S. (2017). Middle range theories: Application to nursing research (4th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
- Swanson, K. M. (1991). Empirical development of a middle range theory of caring. Nursing Research, 40, 161–166.