Neurotransmitters And Hormones Assignment

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Neurotransmitters And Hormones Assignment

Neurotransmitters And Hormones Assignment

Compare and contrast neurotransmitters and hormones.

Your response must be at least 200 words in length


Discuss the signs and symptoms a patient may exhibit when experiencing liver cirrhosis.

Your response must be at least 200 words in length

Analyze the case study found on p. 276 in your textbook by addressing the assigned questions below. While analyzing the case, be sure to identify the major problems and issues.

 Draft a response or strategy for addressing the major problems and issues.

 Make recommendations to improve the patient’s health.

 Discuss any negative consequences that may occur if the patient’s health issue is not addressed.

Your response should be at least one page in length. Include at least one reference to support your work in APA style. You are required to use at least your textbook as source material for your response. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations.

Information about accessing the Blackboard Grading Rubric for this assignment is provided below.

The Maria story The case study

Maria is a 35 year old insulin dependent diabetic who currently takes good care of herself. She didn’t take good care of herself as a teenager. She is on an insulin pump to try to control her blood sugar, but has recently passed out in public several times.

What conditions causes her to pass out (hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia)

Why does this condition develop

What are the treatments for early stages of this condition

Given that she has been a diabetic for so long, why doesn’t Maria realize she is in trouble before she pass out

Hormones vs. Neurotransmitters: What’s the Difference?
Some individuals believe hormones and neurotransmitters are the same thing because they both function as messengers in the body. 
These substances also have big impact on behavior, and they both have protein versions. 
These, on the other hand, are distinct entities that aid in variety of physiological functions. 
Hormones are chemical signals produced into the circulatory system by the endocrine glands that carry regulatory messages throughout the body. 
Neurotransmitters, on the other hand, are brain chemicals that relay information throughout the brain and body. 
The following are some of the distinct characteristics that will help to clear up any confusion.


What are Hormones and How Do They Work?
Hormones are chemical substances produced by the endocrine system and released by cells into extracellular fluids to regulate the metabolic function of other cells. 
Almost all hormones may be classified chemically into one of the two large classes of biological molecules:


Hormones based on amino acids
Amines and thyroxine, as well as peptides to protein macromolecules, are examples. 
The molecular structures and sizes of these organisms differ greatly.
Cholesterol is used to make these hormones. 
The adrenocortical and gonadal hormones are the only steroid hormones generated by the primary endocrine glands.


What are neurotransmitters and how do they work?
Neurotransmitters are endogenous substances found largely in the nervous system that transfer signals across chemical synapse from one nerve cell to another “target nerve cell,” gland cell, or muscle cell.


Trans-membrane ion flow is influenced by neurotransmitters. 
These either raise or decrease the likelihood of an action potential being produced by the cell.
The two classifications in terms of ion flow facilitation are as follows:


Neurotransmitters that cause excitability
Excitatory neurotransmitters are hyperactive neurotransmitters that stimulate the brain. 
They enable the postsynaptic neuron to generate an action potential, increasing trans-membrane ion flow. 
Dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine are examples of neurotransmitters.


Neurotransmitters that inhibit other neurotransmitters
By calming the brain, inhibitory neurotransmitters aid in the creation of equilibrium. 
They reduce trans-membrane ion flow, making it impossible for the postsynaptic neuron to generate an action potential. 
Serotnin, GABA (gamma-amino butyric acid), and dopamine are examples of neurotransmitters.


Neurotransmitters can also be divided into groups based on their chemical or molecular structure:
Neurotransmitters made up of small molecules


These neurotransmitters are smaller than neuropeptides and are generated locally within the axon terminal. 
The following neurotransmitters are examples of such neurotransmitters:


  • GABA, glycine, and glutamate are amino acid neurotransmitters.
Dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, and histamine are all biogenic amines.


ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) and adenosine Acetylcholine are purinergic neurotransmitters (does not belong to any structural category)




Because their structure is made up of three or more amino acids, these neurotransmitters are known to be larger than molecule neurotransmitters. 
Neuropeptides are made up of three to thirty-six amino acids. 
The following neurotransmitters are examples of such neurotransmitters:


Endorphins sEnkephalins




Vasopressin sInsulin sGlucagon


Read more: Difference Between Hormones and Neurotransmitters
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