Infections, and Hematologic Disorders Essay

Infections, and Hematologic Disorders Essay

Infections and Hematologic Disorders

Factors that affect fertility

The first factor that affects fertility is age. As women age, the chances of getting pregnant dwindle. At 45 years, it becomes difficult to become pregnant, and most women may need assistive reproduction to carry a child. The second factor that affects fertility is low thyroid hormones because of the decreased release of ovulating hormones. The third factor is sexually transmitted diseases (STI) such as Gonorrhea and Chlamydia, among others. Untreated STIs travel to the reproductive system, causing scarring or inflammation on the ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tube (Park et al., 2017). Finally, pelvic inflammatory disease is also associated with infertility. PID also causes scarring in the fallopian, which blocks fertilization.


Inflammatory markers rise in STI

PID and STIs cause complications such as ectopic pregnancy, Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome, and infertility, which are associated with the rise in inflammatory markers such as CRP, TOA, and CA-125 (Curry et al., 2019).

Why a patient would need a splenectomy after a diagnosis of ITP

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Splenectomy is the removal of the spleen, which is necessary because the spleen contains the platelets that cause ITP. In people with ITP, the immune system confuses the platelets with a foreign element; thus, destroying them (McCance & Huether, 2019).

Anemia and the different kinds of anemia (i.e., micro and macrocytic).

The patient’s laboratory results indicate a diagnosis of anemia. Different kinds of anemia are classified depending on the mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Normocytic anemia occurs when the MCV is within the normal range, between 80-100 fL. Macrocytic anemia occurs MCV is beyond the normal range, over 100 fL. Macrocytic can occur because of insufficient vitamin B intake or hepatic insufficiency (Stauder et al., 2019). Microcytic anemia occurs when MCV is below 80 fL, characterized by small, hypochromic red blood cells as viewed under a microscope (McCance & Huether, 2019). The condition often occurs due to iron deficiency.

Another type of anemia is pernicious, caused by failure to digest Vit B12, an essential element in red cells production.


Curry, A., Williams, T., & Penny, M. (2019). Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention. Am Fam Physician, 100(6),357-364.

McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

Park, S. T., Lee, S., Kim, M., Kang, Y., Moon, H., & Rhim, C. (2017). Clinical characteristics of genital chlamydia infection in pelvic inflammatory disease. BMC Womens Health, 17, 5. https://doi.10.1186/s12905-016-0356-9.

Stauder, R., Valent, P., & Theurl, I. (2019). Anemia at older age: Etiologies, clinical implications and management . Blood Journal, 131(5), .


Scenario 3: 67-year-old female presents with chief complaint of shortness of breath, fatigue, weakness, unintentional weight loss, and mild numbness in her feet. She states she feels unsteady when she walks. PMH includes hypothyroidism well controlled on Synthroid 100 mcg/day. No hx of HTN or CHF.

Vital signs: Temp 98.7 F, pulse 118, Respirations 22, BP 108/64, PaO2 95% on room air.

Physical exam revealed pale, anxious female appearing older than stated years.

HEENT- pale conjunctiva of eyes and pale palate. Tongue beefy red and slightly swollen with loss of normal rugae. Turbinates pale but no swelling. Thyroid palpable but no nodules felt. No lymph nodes palpated.

Cardiac-regular rate and rhythm with soft II/VI systolic murmur. Respiratory- lungs clear with no adventitious breath sounds. Abdomen-soft, non-tender with positive bowel sounds. Liver edge palpated two finger breadths below right costal margin. Lab data- hgb, hct, reticulocyte count, serum B12 levels low, mean corpuscle volume, plasma iron, and ferritin levels high, folate, TIBC are normal.
The factors that affect fertility (STDs).
Why inflammatory markers rise in STD/PID.
Why prostatitis and infection happens. Also explain the causes of systemic reaction.
Why a patient would need a splenectomy after a diagnosis of ITP.
Anemia and the different kinds of anemia (i.e., micro and macrocytic).

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