Health Plan promotion: Immunization Essay

 Health Plan promotion: Immunization Essay

 Health Plan promotion: Immunization Essay

Immunization is one of the interventions that are effective against diseases in society. Chronic diseases such as cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) can be prevented through immunization. Human papillomavirus accounts for about 12000 cases of cervical cancer in the USA on an annual basis (“CDC”, 2022). Human papillomavirus is also the most common sexually transmitted infection in the USA, with more than 79 million people (most being those in late teens) affected by it (“CDC”, 2022). Immunization against HPV promises to reduce the risk of and prevent cervical cancer. However, the uptake of HPV immunization among African Americans is low in the USA. Therefore, the purpose of this assignment is to formulate a health promotion plan to improve the uptake of HPV vaccine uptake among the African Americans.

Analysis of the Health Concern

The selected issue of health concern for the health promotion plan is the low uptake of HPV immunization by African Americans in the USA. As such, the selected population of interest is African Americans. According to Sriram & Ranganathan (2019), the HPV vaccine protects against up to 90% of different cancers, including cervical, vaginal, anal, and oral cancers. Despite this, individuals from lower-income ethnic, including African Americans have lower HPV vaccination compared to American whites (Ford et al., 2020). The statistics by Harrington et al., (2021) show that 71.5% of adolescent males and females aged 13-17 years had been immunized against HPV in 2019 in the USA. However, vaccine completion remains low (56.8% in females and 51.8% in males), with a high rate seen in adolescents from ethnic minority groups (Harrington et al., 2021). The diminished uptake of the HPV vaccine increases the risks of getting cancers such as oral, anal, vaginal and cervical cancer among this population.

Worrying evidence shows that minimal interventions, including health promotion plans such as public health education have been adopted to create awareness and enhance vaccine uptake among this population (Harrington et al., 2021). The low uptake of HPV vaccines among African Americans increases the risk of inequalities in HPV vaccine uptake, HPV, and its associated cancers among them. Health promotion interventions such as public health education may be effective in addressing the issue by creating awareness about the importance of HPV vaccination, hence, its acceptance and uptake by this population (Ford et al., 2020).


Importance of the Health Concern for the Population

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The issue of low uptake of HPV vaccine among African Americans is important because of several reasons. First, African Americans have been shown to have an elevated risk of developing HPV-associated cancers and mortality compared to American whites (Campos et al., 2021). Black women carry the highest burden of being diagnosed with cervical cancer, with most likely to die due to the disease compared to other ethnic groups or races (Teteh et al., 2019). African Americans are also 10% less likely to have been immunized against HPV compared to whites. The prevalence of mistrust towards the HPV vaccine is also reported to be higher among Blacks compared to non-Hispanic Whites (Peterson et al., 2021). Combined, the above issues predispose African Americans to HPV-associated cancers, which contribute to poor health outcomes and health inequalities among them. Therefore, responsive health promotion interventions should be adopted to bridge the gap in the uptake of HPV vaccines among this population.

Factors Contributing to Health, Health Disparities, and Access to Services

Several factors contribute to health, health disparities, and access to HPV immunization services by African Americans. One of the factors is knowledge, attitude, and beliefs toward the HPV vaccine. Evidence shows that Black women have the greatest knowledge deficiencies and mistrust towards HPV vaccine compared to non-Hispanic Whites. The knowledge deficit and mistrust hinder access to and acceptance of the HPV vaccine (Teteh et al., 2019). The other factor is the stigma associated with HPV and HPV vaccine among African Americans. The study by Peterson et al., (2021) demonstrated that drivers of stigma toward the HPV vaccine and HPV-associated cancers such as fear of social rejection, judgment, shame, and self-blame affect the utilization of health promotion services against cervical cancer. Facilitators such as social norms that motivate participants to utilize screening services and HPV vaccines were found to increase the uptake of HPV vaccines (Peterson et al., 2021). Other factors such as mistrust in healthcare institutions and doctors have also been shown to influence access, disparity, and uptake of HPV vaccines. For example, the historical misuse and exploitation of African Americans and other individuals from ethnic minority groups by healthcare professionals has lowered the population’s motivation to receive the vaccination or accept the vaccination of their children (Harrington et al., 2021). The factors that would be considered in developing a sociogram for African Americans will include their socio-demographic characteristics, cultural values, beliefs and practices related to vaccines, and lifestyle and behaviors that influence their decision-making.

Importance of Establishing Agreed-Upon Health Goals

The most important approach to addressing the low uptake of HPV vaccines by African Americans is working with them to establish agreed-upon goals. The agreed-upon goals should respect their diverse cultural values, beliefs, and practices related to health. A focus should be on ensuring inclusiveness and relevance of the agreed goals to their needs and addressing the issue (Kuipers et al., 2019). The potential SMART goals that would guide the health promotion plan include the following:

  1. By the end of the health promotion exercise, African Americans should be able to state the benefits of HPV vaccine and its utilization to promote their health.
  2. By the end of the exercise, the African Americans involved in the health promotion will be able to identify and explain at least three factors that hinder the use of HPV vaccine and describe at least one strategy of overcoming each.
  3. By the end of the health promotion exercise, the awareness regarding HPV vaccine use among the African Americans should increase by at least 40% as shown from the post health promotion awareness and knowledge survey scores.

The benefits of establishing agreed-upon goals are immense. One of them is population empowerment. African Americans will feel respected, which empowers them to take responsibility for their health and embrace interventions that promote their health and wellbeing (Price et al., 2018). Establishing agreed-upon goals on issues related to the HPV vaccine also promotes ownership. African Americans will own the proposed interventions to address the stigma associated with the HPV vaccine as one of the barriers, hence, their enhanced utilization of health promotion services for their health (Bomhof-Roordink et al., 2019). There is also the benefit of sustainability of change interventions in this group. Accordingly, the implementation of relevant interventions for African Americans is likely to result in the realization of a long-term increase in the utilization of HPV vaccines.

The health promotion program will majorly involve educating the selected population (African Americans) on the importance of taking the vaccines. As part of the plan, the health promotion will run for a period of four weeks with five sessions every week. Therefore, it is expected that a total of twenty sessions will be accomplished to help achieve the objectives of the health promotion program. Accessing these individuals has to be planned prior. As such, the participants will be recruited from churches in the region and community recreational centers. The major focus of the program is to improve the vaccine uptake among the African Americans.

Their knowledge, attitude, and beliefs will also be transformed leading to a healthy lifestyle and behavioral decisions among them (Harrington et al., 2021). Therefore, establishing agreed-upon goals is important in addressing the low uptake of HPV vaccine among African Americans.


Overall, the uptake of the HPV vaccine among African Americans is low despite its known benefits in preventing different types of cancers. The low uptake predisposes them to unequal health outcomes and utilization of health promotion services. Factors such as low level of knowledge and negative attitude towards vaccines and healthcare systems contribute to the low uptake of HPV vaccine among this population. Therefore, interventions such as working with them to establish mutually agreed goals should be considered to address the problem.




Bomhof-Roordink, H., Gärtner, F. R., Stiggelbout, A. M., & Pieterse, A. H. (2019). Key components of shared decision making models: A systematic review. BMJ Open, 9(12), e031763.

Campos, N. G., Scarinci, I. C., Tucker, L., Peral, S., Li, Y., Regan, M. C., Sy, S., Castle, P. E., & Kim, J. J. (2021). Cost-Effectiveness of Offering Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Self-Sampling among African-American Women in the Mississippi Delta. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 30(6), 1114–1121.

CDC (2022). Genital HPV infection-Fact Sheet.

Ford, M. E., Cannady, K., Hazelton, N., Knight, K. D., Lawton, C., Malek, A. M., & Salley, J. D. (2020). Abstract D014: Assessing an intervention to increase cervical cancer knowledge and HPV vaccination knowledge among predominantly African American communities in South Carolina. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 29(6_Supplement_2), D014.

Harrington, N., Chen, Y., O’Reilly, A. M., & Fang, C. Y. (2021). The role of trust in HPV vaccine uptake among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States: A narrative review. AIMS Public Health, 8(2), 352–368.

Kuipers, S. J., Cramm, J. M., & Nieboer, A. P. (2019). The importance of patient-centered care and co-creation of care for satisfaction with care and physical and social well-being of patients with multi-morbidity in the primary care setting. BMC Health Services Research, 19(1), 13.

Peterson, C. E., Silva, A., Goben, A. H., Ongtengco, N. P., Hu, E. Z., Khanna, D., Nussbaum, E. R., Jasenof, I. G., Kim, S. J., & Dykens, J. A. (2021). Stigma and cervical cancer prevention: A scoping review of the U.S. literature. Preventive Medicine, 153, 106849.

Price, A., Albarqouni, L., Kirkpatrick, J., Clarke, M., Liew, S. M., Roberts, N., & Burls, A. (2018). Patient and public involvement in the design of clinical trials: An overview of systematic reviews. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 24(1), 240–253.

Sriram, S., & Ranganathan, R. (2019). Why human papilloma virus vaccination coverage is low among adolescents in the US? A study of barriers for vaccination uptake. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 8(3), 866–870.

Teteh, D. K., Dawkins-Moultin, L., Robinson, C., LaGroon, V., Hooker, S., Alexander, K., & Kittles, R. A. (2019). Use of community forums to increase knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer in African American communities. Journal of Community Health, 44(3), 492–499.


Develop a hypothetical health promotion plan, 3-4 pages in length, addressing a specific health concern for an individual or a group living in the community that you identified from the topic list provided.

Teen Pregnancy.
LGBTQIA + Health.
Sudden Infant Death (SID).
Tobacco use (include all: vaping, e-cigarettes, hookah, chewing tobacco, and smoking) cessation.
Historically, nurses have made significant contributions to community and public health with regard to health promotion, disease prevention, and environmental and public safety. They have also been instrumental in shaping public health policy. Today, community and public health nurses have a key role in identifying and developing plans of care to address local, national, and international health issues. The goal of community and public health nursing is to optimize the health of individuals and families, taking into consideration cultural, racial, ethnic groups, communities, and populations. Caring for a population involves identifying the factors that place the population’s health at risk and developing specific interventions to address those factors. The community/public health nurse uses epidemiology as a tool to customize disease prevention and health promotion strategies disseminated to a specific population. Epidemiology is the branch of medicine that investigates causes of various diseases in a specific population (CDC, 2012; Healthy People 2030, n.d.).

As an advocate and educator, the community/public health nurse is instrumental in providing individuals, groups, and aggregates with the tools that are essential for health promotion and disease prevention. There is a connection between one’s quality of life and their health literacy. Health literacy is related to the knowledge, comprehension, and understanding of one’s condition along with the ability to find resources that will treat, prevent, maintain, or cure their condition. Health literacy is impacted by the individual’s learning style, reading level, and the ability understand and retain the information being provided. The individual’s technology aptitude and proficiency in navigating available resources is an essential component to making informed decisions and to the teaching learning process (CDC, 2012; Healthy People 2030, n.d.).

It is essential to develop trust and rapport with community members to accurately identify health needs and help them adopt health promotion, health maintenance, and disease prevention strategies. Cultural, socio-economical, and educational biases need to be taken into consideration when communicating and developing an individualized treatment and educational plan. Social, economic, cultural, and lifestyle behaviors can have an impact on an individual’s health and the health of a community. These behaviors may pose health risks, which may be mitigated through lifestyle/behaviorally-based education. The environment, housing conditions, employment factors, diet, cultural beliefs, and family/support system structure play a role in a person’s levels of risk and resulting health. Assessment, evaluation, and inclusion of these factors provide a basis for the development of an individualized plan. The health professional may use a genogram or sociogram in this process.

What is a genogram? A genogram, similar to a family tree, is used to gather detailed information about the quality of relationships and interactions between family members over generations as opposed to lineage. Gender, family relationships, emotional relationships, lifespan, and genetic predisposition to certain health conditions are components of a genogram. A genogram, for instance, may identify a pattern of martial issues perhaps rooted in anger or explain why a person has green eyes.

What is a sociogram? A sociogram helps the health professional to develop a greater understanding of these factors by seeing inter-relationships, social links between people or other entities, as well as patterns to identify vulnerable populations and the flow of information within the community.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Lesson 1: Introduction to epidemiology. In Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health Practice (3rd ed.).

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (n.d.). Healthy People 2030.

Demonstration of Proficiency

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:

Competency 1: Analyze health risks and health care needs among distinct populations.
Analyze a community health concern that is the focus of a health promotion plan.
Competency 2: Propose health promotion strategies to improve the health of populations.
Explain why a health concern is important for health promotion within a specific population.
Establish agreed-upon health goals in collaboration with participants.
Competency 5: Apply professional, scholarly communication strategies to lead health promotion and improve population health.
Organize content so ideas flow logically with smooth transitions; contains few errors in grammar/punctuation, word choice, and spelling.
Apply APA formatting to in-text citations and references exhibiting nearly flawless adherence to APA format.
Your Online ePortfolio

Creating an ePortfolio is not required in the BSN program, but you may find it helpful to create one to attach to your professional resume while job hunting. Online ePortfolios serve two key purposes: 1) to support learning and reflection, and 2) to be used as a showcase tool. Your learning journey can be documented, and ePortfolios contribute to lifelong learning and growth through reflection and sharing. Online ePortfolios can also be shared with employers and peers to present artifacts that demonstrate your accomplishments at Capella.

Using ePortfolio to Build Your Career
As you are preparing to tell your story in the professional world, leverage your ePortfolio artifacts to demonstrate the knowledge and competencies you have gained through your program in professional conversations, performance reviews, and interviews. To do that, reflect on the knowledge and skills you have gained from your courses and the elements you have put in your portfolio, along with how you have already applied these things to your professional life or how you might apply them in the future. Next, create your story or talking points to tell your professional story.

Privacy Statement
Capella complies with privacy laws designed to protect the privacy of personal information. While you may voluntarily share your own information publicly, you are obligated to protect the personal information of others that may be associated with your academic or professional development. Before sharing information and material in any ePortfolio that is set up to be shared externally to your program at Capella, please consider privacy obligations in relation to protected populations who may be included or referenced in your academic or clinical work. Refer to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) and/or the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) if you have specific questions or concerns about your choices.


Note: Assessment 1 must be completed first before you are able to submit Assessment 4.


The first step in any effective project or clinical patient encounter is planning. This assessment provides an opportunity for you to plan a hypothetical clinical learning experience focused on health promotion associated with a specific community health concern or health need. Such a plan defines the critical elements of who, what, when, where, and why that establish the foundation for an effective clinical learning experience for the participants. Completing this assessment will strengthen your understanding of how to plan and negotiate individual or group participation. This assessment is the foundation for the implementation of your health promotion educational plan (Assessment 4).

You will need to satisfactorily pass Assessment 1 (Health Promotion Plan) before working on your last assessment (Assessment 4).

To prepare for the assessment, consider a various health concern or health need that you would like to be the focus of your plan from the topic list provided, the populations potentially affected by that concern or health need, and hypothetical individuals or groups living in the community. Then, investigate your chosen concern or need and best practices for health improvement, based on supporting evidence.

As you begin to prepare this assessment, you are encouraged to complete the Vila Health: Effective Interpersonal Communications activity. The information gained from completing this activity will help you succeed with the assessment. Completing activities is also a way to demonstrate engagement.

For this assessment, you will propose a hypothetical health promotion plan addressing a particular health concern or health need affecting a fictitious individual or group living in the community. The hypothetical individual or group of your choice must be living in the community; not in a hospital, assistant living, nursing home, or other facility. You may choose any health issues or need from the list provided in the instructions.

In the Assessment 4, you will simulate a face-to-face presentation of this plan to the individual or group that you have identified.

Please choose one of the topics below:

Teen Pregnancy.
LGBTQIA + Health.
Sudden Infant Death (SID).
Tobacco use (include all: vaping e-cigarettes, hookah, chewing tobacco, and smoking) cessation. (MUST address all tobacco products).
In addition, you are encouraged to:

Complete the Vila Health: Effective Interpersonal Communications simulation.
Review the health promotion plan assessment and scoring guide to ensure that you understand the work you will be asked to complete.
Review the MacLeod article, “Making SMART Goals Smarter.”
Note: Remember that you can submit all, or a portion of, your draft assessment to Smarthinking Tutoring for feedback before you submit the final version for this assessment. If you plan on using this free service, be mindful of the turnaround time of 24-48 hours for receiving feedback.


Health Promotion Plan
Choose a specific health concern or health need as the focus of your hypothetical health promotion plan. Then, investigate your chosen concern or need and best practices for health improvement, based on supporting evidence.
Teen Pregnancy.
LGBTQIA + Health.
Sudden Infant Death (SID).
Tobacco use (include all: vaping e-cigarettes, hookah, chewing tobacco, and smoking) cessation. (MUST address all tobacco products).
Create a scenario as if this project was being completed face-to-face.
Identify the chosen population and include demographic data (location, lifestyle, age, race, ethnicity, gender, marital status, income, education, employment).
Describe in detail the characteristics of your chosen hypothetical individual or group for this activity and how they are relevant to this targeted population.
Discuss why your chosen population is predisposed to this health concern or health need and why they can benefit from a health promotion educational plan.
Based on the health concern for your hypothetical individual or group, discuss what you would include in the development of a sociogram. Take into consideration possible social, economic, cultural, genetic, and/or lifestyle behaviors that may have an impact on health as you develop your educational plan in your first assessment. You will take this information into consideration when you develop your educational plan in your fourth assessment.
Identify their potential learning needs. Collaborate with the individual or group on SMART goals that will be used to evaluate the educational session (Assessment 4).
Identify the individual or group’s current behaviors and outline clear expectations for this educational session and offer suggestions for how the individual or group needs can be met.
Health promotion goals need to be clear, measurable, and appropriate for this activity. Consider goals that will foster behavior changes and lead to the desired outcomes.
Document Format and Length
Your health promotion plan should be 3-4 pages in length.

Supporting Evidence
Support your health promotion plan with peer-reviewed articles, course study resources, and Healthy People 2030 resources. Cite at least three credible sources published within the past five years, using APA format.

Graded Requirements
The requirements outlined below correspond to the grading criteria in the scoring guide, so be sure to address each point. Read the performance-level descriptions for each criterion to see how your work will be assessed.

Analyze the health concern that is the focus of your health promotion plan.
Consider underlying assumptions and points of uncertainty in your analysis.
Explain why a health concern is important for health promotion within a specific population.
Examine current population health data.
Consider the factors that contribute to health, health disparities, and access to services.
Explain the importance of establishing agreed-upon health goals in collaboration with hypothetical participants.
Organize content so ideas flow logically with smooth transitions; contains few errors in grammar/punctuation, word choice, and spelling.
Apply APA formatting to in-text citations and references exhibiting nearly flawless adherence to APA format.
Write with a specific purpose and audience in mind.
Adhere to scholarly and disciplinary writing standards and APA formatting requirements.
Before submitting your assessment for grading, proofread it to minimize errors that could distract readers and make it difficult for them to focus on the substance of your plan.

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