Discussion: Decision-Making Model

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Discussion: Decision-Making Model

Discussion: Decision-Making Model

Complete the Learning Exercise 4.3 – Family Values with the MORAL Decision-Making Model (located in Chapter 4 of the textbook).


1. Read the  Learning Exercise 4.3 in Chapter 4.

2. Then, review Display 4.5  .

3. Explain how you would use the Moral Decision-Making Model to make the decisions presented in the Family Values scenario.

. Pretend that you are the attending nurse for the critical patient and see whether the MORAL model helps in the decision-making process for the scenario.

· Finally, comment on the usefulness of the MORAL Decision-Making Model.

· Your paper should be:

. One (1) page

. Typed according to APA style for margins, formatting and spacing standards

. Would need an Abstract. Good reference page format, citation and APT format

. After submission, a rating of 0-15% similarity will be considered acceptable. Over 15% will not be considered acceptable.

NOTE:  Wikipedia is not a source to be used in any of the generated work; using it will result in a “zero” for the assignment.

. I need that you FOLLOW THE APA TEMPLE that I am going to attach with the assignment.

I need that you sent me also the plagiarism report.

decision-making model is description of how group will make decisions. 
The most critical aspect of successful decision-making is that everyone on the team understands how each decision will be made. 
Who will make the final decision? 
What role will team members play? 
When do you think it will be done? 
Knowing these aspects allows team members to participate in talks as fully informed participants – “Will we be providing feedback to the team leader so he can make the decision?” 
or “Will we need to debate and agree on this matter during this meeting?”


Knowing how decision will be made can also help team create more successful meeting agendas and lead to more collaborative team approach. 
Most significantly, understanding how decisions are made aids in the development of support for the final decision as well as active commitment to its implementation. 
Because effective teams strive for complete engagement from all members, they frequently utilize consensus decision-making paradigm. 
This decision-making paradigm, when utilized correctly, can improve the quality of team’s decisions. 
(For more on consensus decisions, see the section below.)


There are variety of decision-making models available, each of which may be useful for certain types of decisions. 
Some decision-making models, ranging from the least to the most participative, include:


The team leader makes the decision and tells the rest of the team.


This may be acceptable for time-sensitive decisions or decisions when the team is likely to support and implement the decision regardless of whether they contributed. 
For example, the team leader decides to cancel team meeting because important members are unable to attend.


After gathering feedback from the team, the team leader makes decision.


This model may be useful when the team’s expert opinion or input is required to make the best conclusion. 
The synergy of team debate may result in more informed conclusion, but the team does not need to agree on specific course of action. 
For example, the team leader has productive conversation with the team about how they see the team’s needs, yet the team leader is the one who writes the final position description for team opening.


Decisions reached by consensus


The term “consensus” is frequently misunderstood to signify “unanimous agreement,” however this is not always the case. 
Each team member’s contribution and acceptance are included in consensus decisions. 
Consensus decisions require large amount of team participation and can result in powerful, well-supported conclusions. 
(More on the consensus later.) 
For example, reaching agreement on the success criteria that team will use to assess its progress on project.


Consensus with backup plan


Because it pre-determines course of action to be performed if the team is unable to make decision within reasonable amount of time, this decision-making model may be the most successful way to execute consensus decision-making. 
Of course, the amount of time allotted for particular decision will be determined by the decision’s complexity, importance, and implementation difficulty. 
The team leader may be the preferable fallback option, as he or she analyzes the team’s feedback before making decision. 
The availability of backup plan allows the team to keep moving forward without rejecting team members’ opinions. 
Example: The team leader notices that there is still much disagreement among team members after lengthy discussion over the team’s motto. 
She secures the team’s permission to go to their backup plan: she’ll consider all of their feedback and make the choice herself. 
This has been agreed upon by the team.


The team leader establishes boundaries and delegated authority to team members.


team leader can delegate decision to the team or sub-group of the team once team members are aware of any critical constraints. 
This decision-making model assists teams in sharing decision-making responsibilities, can assist the team and individual members in developing decision-making skills, and allows the team leader to devote his or her attention to something else. 
For example, team leader delegated responsibility to subgroup to design and print brochure while keeping pricing and style limits in mind.


For some decisions, some teams may employ “majority rules” voting technique. 
While most of us are familiar with this strategy, it can leave certain team members feeling “lost” when it comes to key decisions. 
While majority vote can be successful decision-making approach for low-impact decisions, it will be less effective in values-laden decisions or those that require active buy-in. 
Prior to any big “majority rules” decision-making, it would be essential to have serious and inclusive discussion.


More on the subject of agreement


Now that we know that consensus decision-making does not always imply unanimous support for particular conclusion, it’s time to define consensus decision-making in more detail. 
When everyone in the team has had adequate opportunity to have their thoughts considered and can fully support the team’s decision, consensus is reached. 
Consensus decisions indicate that the entire team has agreed on plan of action, even if individual preferences may differ. 
Consensus decisions frequently lead to wholly new solutions that the team discovers during its deliberations.


Individual team members may change their minds (based on fresh information or opinions from their peers) or elect to defer their personal feelings or needs to those of the group during the consensus-building debate. 
The important thing to remember is that this is planned and completely voluntary process on the side of the team member. 
Individuals change their viewpoints to support team’s choice for variety of reasons, including:


The majority of the proposed decision is acceptable to me.


decision to give up non-essential aspect of their point of view in order to improve team alignment on the subject.


Having the assurance that the ultimate decision would not jeopardize their values


Because so many members of the team support the final choice, it is thought to have the best possibility of being implemented successfully.


It takes time to reach an agreement, but with practice, consensus-based decision-making becomes easier. 
To ensure that everyone gets chance to participate in the decision-making process, teams utilizing consensus-based decision-making model will need to develop good meeting procedures. 
The ability to properly identify the decision topic, as well as the ability to create agreements and sensitivity to the team’s process, are all factors that contribute to successful consensus decision-making.


It is critical that the team pay attention to the group process so that no team member changes his or her mind out of fear of repercussions for disagreeing, or because they are “bullied” into altering their ideas by the team (via angry remarks or “friendly teasing”).


Check for team consensus by asking each team member if they agree with the following four statements:


I’ve heard your arguments.


suppose you’ve heard what I’m saying.


My ideals are not jeopardized by this action.


The proposed proposal and its implementation have my complete support.
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