Diabetes and Drug Treatments Essay

Diabetes and Drug Treatments Essay

 Diabetes and Drug Treatments Essay

Type 1 diabetes and juvenile diabetes connotes chronic conditions in which the pancreas secretes little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that plays a crucial role in facilitating glucose to enter body cells and tissues to generate energy (Tan et al., 2019). The onset of Type 1 Diabetes is mostly in childhood but can begin in adolescence and adulthood. Juvenile diabetes occurs in childhood.  Type 2 diabetes develops in people who are genetically inclined because of various factors such as physical inactivity, old age, and obesity. The B-cell is compromised due to immune system activation, unremitting-low grade inflammation, and infiltration in the pancreas, which enhance insulin resistance. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes include frequent infections, diminished sensation, weight gain, visual changes, and fatigue (Tan et al., 2019). On the other hand, Gestational diabetes characterizes a high blood sugar level which starts or is first discovered during pregnancy (Plows et al., 2018). However, women with this type of diabetes may have been having undetected diabetes before being diagnosed with gestational diabetes. Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes               The selected medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes is Metformin. Metformin is a hypoglycemic agent under Biguanides, which is a recommended as first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes (Flory & Lipska, 2019). However, it may not be appropriate where it restrains the liver from generating glucose and creates more insulin insensitivity to the muscle tissue. Metformin can be administered in two oral preparations. For instant-release tablets in adults, the dose is 500 mg orally daily. For extended-release, the first dose for adults is 500 mg to 1 gram once a day (Flory & Lipska, 2019). The dietary considerations related to treatment in both cases is to ensure a patient is given a meal and continuing dose titration to help in reduction of the negative effects of gastrointestinal. The short-term effects of Type 2 diabetes include complications such as hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (HHNKS) and hypoglycemia. The long-term effects include microvascular and macrovascular complications, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, cataracts, neuropathy, and heart failure. The potential side effects of Metformin include lactic acidosis and chronic metabolic acidosis.


Flory, J., & Lipska, K. (2019). Metformin in 2019. Jama, 321(19), 1926-1927. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.3805

Plows, J. F., Stanley, J. L., Baker, P. N., Reynolds, C. M., & Vickers, M. H. (2018). The pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus. International journal of molecular sciences, 19(11), 3342. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113342

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Tan, S. Y., Wong, J. L. M., Sim, Y. J., Wong, S. S., Elhassan, S. A. M., Tan, S. H., … & Candasamy, M. (2019). Type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus: A review on the current treatment approach and gene therapy as a potential intervention. Diabetes & metabolic syndrome: clinical research & reviews, 13(1), 364-372. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2018.10.008



Discussion: Diabetes and Drug Treatments

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Each year, 1.5 million Americans are diagnosed with diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2019). If left untreated, diabetic patients are at risk for several alterations, including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, neuropathy, and blindness. There are various methods for treating diabetes, many of which include some form of drug therapy. The type of diabetes as well as the patient’s behavior factors will impact treatment recommendations.

For this Discussion, you compare types of diabetes, including drug treatments for type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.

Reference: American Diabetes Association. (2019). Statistics about diabetes. Retrieved from http://diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/statistics/

To Prepare
Review the Resources for this module and reflect on differences between types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.
Select one type of diabetes to focus on for this Discussion.
Consider one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Then, reflect on dietary considerations related to treatment.
Think about the short-term and long-term impact of the diabetes you selected on patients, including effects of drug treatments.

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Chapter 48, “Drugs for Diabetes Mellitus” (pp. 397–415)
Chapter 49, “Drugs for Thyroid Disorders” (pp. 416–424)


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