Assignment: Test of validity

Want create site? With you can do it easy.

Assignment: Test of validity

Assignment: Test of validity


Developing quantitative research studies that can stand the test of validity is a complicated and nuanced practice. Burkholder (2016) touched upon the experimental design validity framework of Shadish and colleagues that focuses on validity in the context of experimental designs. The framework outlines four components of validity in experimental design research; internal, external, statistical conclusion, and construct validity (Ch 2, Validity Considerations). Focusing upon internal and external validity it is important to note the threats and disparities of each in developing and conducting quantitative research.

Internal validity refers to the ability to test selected variables to an extent that allows the researcher to develop a causal inference. The ability to show that a selected variable had a change directly impacted by or caused by an independent variable absent of another plausible rival explanation (Burkholder, Ch 2, Internal Validity). Internal validity means that a study design enabled the researcher to account for all possible intervening variables related to the focus of the research. Internal validity in a way is the elimination of competing variables to explain a given phenomenon. For example, a study examining student retention and tuition affordability would have to account academic variables (among others) in order to isolate the focus upon economic driven negative retention rates. A researcher would have to control for students (or eliminate) from a study those where negative retention was the result of poor academic performance in order to show a valid relationship between retention (dependent) and affordability (independent). Failure to do so would result in the study failing to meet the standard of internal validity. Diminishing any correlation based upon non-controlled variables that could be used as plausible explanations for the dependent variable.

The plausibility of the implantation of a research study across contexts while still holding true is external validity (Burkholder, Ch.2, External Validity). This is another research design practice that requires an astute attention to detail and a great deal of perspective to eliminate. The greatest threat to external validity in my opinion is a failure to account for environmental context. Or the inability to account for environmental context when conducting a study or examining research results. For Instance, in my field of higher education, a study examining the effectiveness of retention policies in New Jersey would fail an external validity test if it did not account for the variations of state policies from state to state. This would be an example of generalization of a research study findings. If a researcher accounted for plausible factors that enabled a study to replicate across other states by utilizing qualitative data could then account for external validity of the study.

In addition to validity concerns in developing quantitative research studies, ethical concerns are also a pressing trepidation for researchers. For instance, when conducting a study that is localized to a specific geographic area, whereas the publication of the data could potentially be traced to individuals, is a paramount ethical and legal concern for researchers (Protecting Human Research Participants, NIH Office of Extramural Research). A study design must account for the anonymity and protection of any research subjects. When designing a research study it is important to measure the necessity of ethical responsibility, with the selection of study variables and testing tools. A failure to do so can leave a researcher ethically responsible for failing to meet the obligation of participant privacy or a study whose measurements could not balance with those obligations and fails to meet validity standards.

Finally, in developing a research study, one must derive ones methodology from the basis of the research question. Thus after developing a research question one can determine the most appropriate methodology to answer the research question. Not every research question is amenable to quantitative methodology. This means that in order to employ a quantitative methodology a researcher must be able to identify variables that can be numerically quantified as well as a tool that can accurately test the quantified data. Some research questions cannot be answered without a qualitative approach. Thus, the importance in allowing the research question to delineate the scientific methodology to employ for a given study and to analyze the potential limitations or flaws that may arise if choosing quantitative methods for a study that is not amenable to quantitative approaches.

Did you find apk for android? You can find new and apps.

What Will You Get?

We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.

Premium Quality

Get result-oriented writing and never worry about grades anymore. We follow the highest quality standards to make sure that you get perfect assignments.

Experienced Writers

Our writers have experience in dealing with papers of every educational level. You can surely rely on the expertise of our qualified professionals.

On-Time Delivery

Your deadline is our threshold for success and we take it very seriously. We make sure you receive your papers before your predefined time.

24/7 Customer Support

Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.

Complete Confidentiality

Sit back and relax while we help you out with writing your papers. We have an ultimate policy for keeping your personal and order-related details a secret.

Authentic Sources

We assure you that your document will be thoroughly checked for plagiarism and grammatical errors as we use highly authentic and licit sources.

Moneyback Guarantee

Still reluctant about placing an order? Our 100% Moneyback Guarantee backs you up on rare occasions where you aren’t satisfied with the writing.

Order Tracking

You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.


Areas of Expertise

Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.

Areas of Expertise

Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.


Trusted Partner of 9650+ Students for Writing

From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.

Preferred Writer

Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.

Grammar Check Report

Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.

One Page Summary

You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.

Plagiarism Report

You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.

Free Features $66FREE

  • Most Qualified Writer $10FREE
  • Plagiarism Scan Report $10FREE
  • Unlimited Revisions $08FREE
  • Paper Formatting $05FREE
  • Cover Page $05FREE
  • Referencing & Bibliography $10FREE
  • Dedicated User Area $08FREE
  • 24/7 Order Tracking $05FREE
  • Periodic Email Alerts $05FREE

Our Services

Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.

  • On-time Delivery
  • 24/7 Order Tracking
  • Access to Authentic Sources
Academic Writing

We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.

Professional Editing

We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.

Thorough Proofreading

We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.


Delegate Your Challenging Writing Tasks to Experienced Professionals

Work with ultimate peace of mind because we ensure that your academic work is our responsibility and your grades are a top concern for us!

Check Out Our Sample Work

Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality


It May Not Be Much, but It’s Honest Work!

Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.


Happy Clients


Words Written This Week


Ongoing Orders


Customer Satisfaction Rate

Process as Fine as Brewed Coffee

We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.

See How We Helped 9000+ Students Achieve Success


We Analyze Your Problem and Offer Customized Writing

We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.

  • Clear elicitation of your requirements.
  • Customized writing as per your needs.

We Mirror Your Guidelines to Deliver Quality Services

We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.

  • Proactive analysis of your writing.
  • Active communication to understand requirements.

We Handle Your Writing Tasks to Ensure Excellent Grades

We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.

  • Thorough research and analysis for every order.
  • Deliverance of reliable writing service to improve your grades.
Place an Order Start Chat Now