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Assignment: Health Promotion Program Plan
Assignment: Health Promotion Program Plan
In Week 1, you selected and analyzed a health issue and described the population most affected by it, using the PRECEDE-PROCEED health promotion program planning model. In Week 2, you learned how to conduct a needs assessment and how the results of the needs assessments are used in health promotion program planning and design. In Week 3, you analyzed the predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling behavioral risk factors for your selected health issue, using the PRECEDE-PROCEED health promotion program planning model. In Week 4, you selected and evaluated the strategies of two social marketing campaigns.
This week you will address your selected health issue based on the individual project components you have completed throughout this course. Compile the relevant ideas from the papers developed from Week 1 through Week 4 to create a complete health promotion program plan. Write a 15 to 20 page, double-spaced, research paper. Use the eight (8) phases of PRECEDE-PROCEED health promotion planning model, to create a health promotion plan for your selected health issue.
Please include the following in your paper:
- Write a 1 to 2-page executive summary about the health promotion program plan. The executive summary should be written keeping a lay audience in mind.
- Create one or more graphic organizers for the planning model, following the framework of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model.
- Please remember to also:
- Identify a working group for implementation of your selected strategies (Phase 4)
- Explain how strategies would be adopted, implemented, and maintained in the community (Phase 5)
- Write an introduction, a summary, and include a separate title page and a page for references.
- Be sure to use a minimum of five scholarly references and support your statements with appropriate examples.
For health and fitness experts, physical activity and exercise are top considerations.
Professionals should utilize a program planning model to clearly define the mission, aims, and objectives of the program.
Program planning models have been used as a foundation to examine the efficacy of physical activity and exercise programs throughout the scientific literature.
Program planning models assist health and fitness professionals in strategically assessing the needs of the priority population, carefully planning appropriate interventions, implementing the planned interventions, modifying the plan as needed, and evaluating the program’s immediate, short-term, and long-term efficacy.
Furthermore, having a clear, organized framework to refer to during the development and implementation of an intervention ensures real products/outcomes for key stakeholders to see.
The goals of this Clinical Applications column are to outline the processes of McKenzie et al. (1)’s Generalized Program Planning Model (GPPM), provide examples of how to operationalize these steps, and include best evidence in the promotion of physical activity and exercise treatments.
MODEL FOR GENERALIZED PROGRAM PLANNING
A health and fitness professional can design interventions to increase physical activity and exercise using the GPPM for health promotion programming (see Figure 1) (1).
Assessing needs, creating goals and objectives, developing an intervention, implementing the intervention, and evaluating the results are all steps in the program planning process.
Figure 1: Model for generalized program planning in health promotion (1).
STEP 1: DETERMINING YOUR REQUIREMENTS
Health and fitness practitioners must be aware of the actual (or perceived) demands of their target demographic (e.g., inactive women, elderly males, etc.) that have an impact on their health either directly or indirectly.
From the roles and competences for Health Education Specialists (2), the following processes and examples for completing a needs assessment have been adapted for use by health and fitness professionals:
Create a short plan detailing the types of information you’ll need to acquire regarding the needs of the prioritized demographic (e.g., weight loss, increased strength, type 2 diabetes prevention).
Access applicable current national or local health and fitness information and statistics (e.g., percentage of population physically inactive).
Collect data from individuals in the population (e.g., fitness testing a small sample of women in a potential intervention).
Examine the connections between health-related behaviors (e.g., physical inactivity), the environment (e.g., the lack of sidewalks), and other factors (e.g., family support).
Examine the factors that influence the priority population’s learning process (e.g., college students may prefer technology-based programs, and older adults may prefer in-person or group programs).
Examine the elements that promote or hinder the priority population’s participation in physical activity/exercise (e.g., what resources such as gyms or access to personal trainers are available and affordable).
Based on the findings of the needs assessment, determine the needs of the prioritized population (e.g., because of the prevalence of hypertension among low-income women in the specified zip code and limited access to exercise facilities, a free family-based dance program with childcare will be offered in the mornings at the local library).
STEP 2: SETTING OBJECTIVES AND GOALS
Health and fitness professionals must strategically design a mission statement, goals, and objectives to effectively plan, implement, and assess physical activity and exercise programs (1).
The objective and scope of the program are described in the mission statement.
A mission statement for a worksite-based fitness program, for example, could be something like this:
The Work-well Fitness Program’s goal is to engage, assist, and inspire employees to take better care of themselves.
To accommodate your requirements, we attempt to offer a variety of instructive, helpful, and conveniently accessible wellness and fitness programming.
After key stakeholders (e.g., managers, employees, individuals, and teams who offer or support programs) agree on an inclusive mission statement, goals and objectives must be determined.
Goals are broad statements that characterize the desired goals, as well as the expected direction of change in the desired outcomes.
The following are some examples of goals for new gym members:
To achieve better fitness results
to raise physical activity levels
FU4 is used to reduce body fat percentage.
Because they usually encompass numerous beneficial health outcomes, just one or two goals are usually required.
Then, for each aim, related targets should be defined.
These objectives will aid in determining whether or not each goal has been reached.
Specific, quantifiable, attainable, reasonable, and time-bound goals are required (SMART).
It’s critical to develop goals that are both ambitious and achievable.
While a health and fitness expert may aspire for clients to improve in all fitness outcomes, a more realistic goal might be to improve in three of the five (e.g., cardiovascular, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, or body composition).
Process, impact, and outcome are the three basic sorts of objectives.
The daily tasks and activities required to fulfill the effect and outcome objectives are referred to as process objectives.
Impact objectives are concerned with a program’s immediate impacts and may include learning, behavioral, and environmental goals.
Finally, outcome objectives are concerned with the long-term health and fitness results (1).
Although the program’s primary goals are health and fitness, adding learning, behavioral, and environmental objectives may help to attain health and fitness goals in the future.
For example, a client learning about health and fitness (learning objective) and practicing healthy behaviors might buy a park access permit (environmental objective) and go hiking on a nearby trail.
Although getting access to parks and hiking trails will not immediately result in an increase in cardiorespiratory fitness (outcome objective), accomplishing this impact target may position the client for future success if continued (see Table 1).
T1 TABLE 1: Objective Types, Targeted Outcomes, and SMART Goals
STEP 3: CONSTRUCTION OF AN INTERVENTION
The intervention should be based on the identified needs, mission statement, objectives, and goals.
When preparing the intervention, keep in mind to revisit the goals and objectives on a regular basis to ensure that the program maintains faithful to its original aim.
Despite the fact that this approach is presented in a linear manner, planning the intervention frequently reveals logistical issues and leads to new ideas.
The mission statement, goals, and objectives may need to be revised to ensure that they all flow together as one single strategic plan to satisfy the identified needs.
Consider how an individual’s health behavior is influenced by the surrounding context and environment while planning an intervention (3).
A person’s participation in physical exercise can be influenced positively or negatively by a range of personal, peer, familial, social, sociocultural, organizational, community, policy, and physical environmental factors (4,5).
An ecological model is a framework that organizes these aspects.
Indeed, the 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee recently completed a systematic review of physical activity interventions, concluding that the most effective interventions addressed multiple social ecological levels (i.e., individual, community, communications environment, and physical environmental and policy), were based on behavior change theories, and were implemented in a variety of settings throughout the community (6). (Table 2).
According to research, interventions that function on several levels and account for the four areas of physical activity that contribute to “active living,” such as active recreation, home activities, occupational activities, and active transportation, are the most effective (7).
T2 TABLE 2: Intervention Strategies and Approaches at the Socioecological Level and Physical Activity (6)
STEP 4: ORGANIZING RESOURCES AND IMPLEMENTING THE INTERVENTION
Developing and adhering to a logic model is a systematic and visual way for planners to share and present their understanding of the relationship between the resources they have to operate a program, the activities they plan to implement, and the outcomes they expect when implementing an intervention (1).
For example, implementing an effective physical activity and exercise intervention necessitates coordination of human, curriculum, fiscal, technical, location, equipment, supplies, and time resources; obtaining external funding through community grants or businesses; gaining approval/support from key stakeholders and/or decision makers; and training staff or volunteers.
A visual chart of the predicted timeline for planners to know what to do and when is also useful, in addition to employing a logic model as a road map to keep the intervention orderly and “on track” (Table 3).
The logic model and anticipated timeframe below not only assist the program team in staying organized, but they can also be used to pitch the project to possible donors, collaborators, and important stakeholders (Figure 2).
It could be useful, for example, when trying to persuade health-care organizations to enable an ACSM Certified Exercise Physiologist® (ACSM-EP) to present the Exercise is Medicine® campaign to medical offices.
In addition to these possibilities, there are a number of commercially available project trackers designed for the business world that can assist in tracking and visually representing program progress.
T3 TABLE 3: TIMELINE PROJECTED
Figure 2 shows the logic model.
EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS (STEP 5)
The program’s evaluation brings us back to the program’s aims and objectives once more.
Depending on the target, data and information for evaluating the objectives are collected on an ongoing basis and at the end of the program.
When problems develop, it is sometimes necessary to make changes to the plan and program.
Evaluate each of the processes, impacts (learning, behavioral, and environmental), and result objectives to see if the program’s aims were fulfilled.
Program evaluation can be straightforward if each aim is articulated in SMART language.
The following behavioral goal, for example, can be assessed:
80% of participants will use the online platform to report walking at least five times each week during the 4-week fitness walking program.
The evaluation is calculating the proportion of fitness program participants who used the online platform to report walking at least five times per week during the 4-week fitness walking program, and then deciding if the percentage is greater than or less than the target of 80%.
A health and fitness professional can tell key stakeholders whether or not each of the program’s goals were reached.
In addition, if goals aren’t fulfilled, the health and fitness expert has a solid foundation on which to make data-driven, strategic recommendations for future interventions.
Visual representations of the results and key findings for each objective are often helpful to key stakeholders, such as providing a table, chart, or graph that shows the percentage of fitness program participants who reported walking at least five times per week compared to the percentage of participants who did not report walking at least five times per week (see Figure 3).
Assignment: Health Promotion Program Plan
Finally, a well-written narrative summarizing the findings should be created when the results have been tallied and analyzed.
The following is an excerpt from the findings of a school-based intervention in rural public elementary schools:
“From baseline in January 2011 to 12 follow-up assessments concluding in May 2013, a total of 999 kindergarten to third grade students engaged in data collection consisting of 4-day pedometer tracking and previous-day fruits and vegetable eating recall…
Over the course of the three-year intervention, children’s eating and physical activity habits greatly improved…
The percentage of girls who reached the dietary requirement increased from 1 percent to 16 percent for girls and 3 percent to 7 percent for boys, while the percentage of boys who met the physical activity goal improved from 1 percent to 16 percent for boys.
This school-based strategy could be widely disseminated to encourage healthy habits among rurally poor youngsters.”
Assignment: Health Promotion Program Plan
Given that they have the knowledge, attitudes, skills, experience, and credentials to develop, implement, and evaluate evidence-based physical activity programs, as well as conduct exercise testing and prescription, health and fitness professionals can become valuable partners in a variety of community, clinical, or school-based settings (9,10).
Using a program planning model to guide the process of conducting a needs assessment, setting goals and objectives, developing an intervention, implementing the intervention, and evaluating the program results will help program planners stay organized and on track, as well as communicate the strategic plan and progress to gain and maintain key stakeholders’ support.
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