Assignment: Discussion Forum Sample

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Assignment: Discussion Forum Sample

Assignment: Discussion Forum Sample

Select two of the following discussion questions for your discussion response. Indicate which questions you have chosen using the format displayed in the “Discussion Forum Sample.”

Explain the pathophysiological development of breast cancer. Detail the varying types and oncogenic influences for each type.

Menopause comes at different ages for women. What are the pathological changes causing menopause and what are the pathological changes experienced after menopause?

Testicular cancer is common in younger men. Upon examination, you discover a hard nodule of the right testes. What are the oncogenic influences associated with testicular cancer?

At least 300 words with at least 2 references no older than 5 years and intext citation

Pathophysiology
Breast cancer is caused by DNA damage and genetic alterations, which are impacted by estrogen exposure. 
DNA abnormalities or pro-cancerous genes like BRCA1 and BRCA2 can be passed down from generation to generation. 
As result, having family history of ovarian or breast cancer raises the risk of developing breast cancer. 
The immune system fights cells with aberrant DNA or abnormal development in healthy person. 
When this fails in people with breast cancer, the tumor grows and spreads.

 

Go to Histopathology for further information.

 

According to its relationship to the basement membrane, breast cancer can be invasive or non-invasive. 
Breast noninvasive neoplasms are categorized into two types: lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (DCIS).

 

LCIS is thought to be risk factor for breast cancer development. 
The shape of the LCIS lobule is similar to that of regular lobule, with inflated and filled acini. 
Pathologists distinguish four forms of DCIS: papillary, cribriform, solid, and comedo. DCIS is more morphologically variable than LCIS.

 

DCIS is distinguished by discrete gaps filled with cancerous cells, which are frequently surrounded by discernible basal cell layer of presumably normal myoepithelial cells. 
DCIS of the papillary and cribriform forms are often lower-grade lesions that take longer to progress to invasive malignancy.

 

DCIS that is solid or comedo in appearance is usually higher-grade lesion. 
If left untreated, DCIS frequently progresses to invasive malignancy. 
The lack of overall architecture, haphazard infiltration of cells into variable quantity of stroma, or creation of sheets of continuous and monotonous cells without regard for the form and function of glandular organ are all signs of invasive breast cancer. 
Invasive breast cancer is divided into two histologic kinds by pathologists: ductal and lobular.

Invasive ductal cancer tends to grow as a cohesive mass; it appears as discrete abnormalities on mammograms and is often palpable as a discrete lump in the breast smaller than lobular cancers. 

Invasive lobular cancer spreads in single-file pattern throughout the breast, which explains why it is typically clinically obtuse and goes undetected on mammography or physical examination until the disease is advanced. 
Invasive ductal cancer, also known as infiltrating ductal carcinoma, is the most frequent type of breast cancer, accounting for 50 percent to 70% of all cases.

 

Mixed ductal and lobular malignancies are increasingly detected and characterized in pathology reports. Invasive lobular carcinoma accounts for 10% of breast cancers. 
When invasive ductal carcinomas develop distinct characteristics, they are given names based on those characteristics. 
Infiltrating tubular carcinoma occurs when infiltrating cells form tiny glands lined by single row of bland epithelium. 
The invading cells may produce large amount of mucin and appear to float in it. 
Mucinous or colloid tumors are the terms used to describe these lesions.

 

Tubular and mucinous tumors are usually low-grade (grade I) lesions that make up about 2% to 3% of all invasive breast carcinomas. 
Medullary cancer is distinguished by unusual invasive cells with high-grade nuclear characteristics, numerous mitoses, and no in situ component. 
An infiltrate of tiny mononuclear lymphocytes surrounds the tumor, which produces sheets of cells in syncytial pattern. 
Rather of infiltrating or permeating the stroma, the tumor’s edges push into the surrounding breast. 
Medullary cancer accounts for just about 5% of all breast cancers in its pure form. 
[9] 
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