Assignment: Differentiating Perceptions Of Supervisor

Want create site? With you can do it easy.

Measuring and Differentiating Perceptions of Supervisor and Top Leader Ethics

Janet L. Kottke • Kathie L. Pelletier

Received: 4 October 2011 / Accepted: 26 March 2012 / Published online: 7 April 2012

� Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Abstract We report the results of two studies that eval-

uated the perceptions of supervisor and top leader ethics. In

our first study, we re-analyzed data from Pelletier and

Bligh (J Bus Ethics 67:359–374, 2006) and found that the

Perceptions of Ethical Leadership Scale from that study

could be used to differentiate perceptions of supervisor and

top leader ethics. In a second study with a different sample,

we examined the relationships between (1) individual

employees’ perceptions of top managers’ and immediate

supervisors’ ethical tendencies, and (2) organizational cli-

mate, confidence in top leadership direction, commitment,

and citizenship behavior. Results indicated that employee

perceptions of top managers’ and supervisors’ ethics were

significantly related to climate, top leadership direction,

organizational commitment and the OCB dimension, civic


Keywords Immediate supervisor ethics � Top leader ethics � Organizational culture � Ethics measurement

The corporate scandals of Enron, Tyco, Bank of America,

WorldCom, and Merck during the past decade have led to

an outpouring of popular press articles elaborating on the

lack of regulatory oversight, complex and deceptive

accounting schemes, and greed of these organizations’ top

leaders (McLean and Elkind 2004; Patsuris 2002; Revell

and Burke 2003; Toffler and Reingold 2003). Under-

standing these scandals requires scrutinizing organizational

leaders, their ethical sensibilities and the climates they

fostered; in fact, the predominant focus of academic liter-

ature has been on top leaders’ characters, behaviors, and

formative experiences (e.g., Brown and Treviño 2006).

Without a doubt, top leaders are important for setting the

moral tone for an organization (cf., Sims and Brinkmann

2002; Viswesvaran et al. 1998; Zahra et al. 2007). As

media reports indicate (e.g., Revell and Burke 2003),

unethical top leaders can have tremendous impact on the

survival of a company, but small, seemingly insignificant

acts of dishonesty performed by immediate supervisors

may convey an even more insidious message to the orga-

nization’s employees. Supervisors who engage in dirty

practices confirm local norms encouraging unethical

behavior among immediate reports and most likely for

other supervisors of the same rank. Yet, little research has

assessed the possibility of differing effects of ethical

behavior displayed at top levels of an organization versus

that displayed by an immediate supervisor (Davis and

Rothstein 2006; Mize et al. 2000; Wiley 1998). We surmise

that ethical models at the lower ranks could be as important

as those of the top leadership. Indeed, the effects of

immediate supervisors on employees may very well be

more pronounced than top leadership behavior, as imme-

diate supervisors typically control an employee’s perfor-

mance evaluations, promotions, and pay. If that direct

supervisor is seen as ethical, we would anticipate favorable

employee attitudes toward that supervisor (Dirks and Ferrin

2002) and a greater likelihood that the supervisor could

influence the direct report’s ethical behavior.

J. L. Kottke (&) Department of Psychology, California State University, San

Bernardino, 5500 University Parkway, San Bernardino, CA

92407, USA


K. L. Pelletier

Department of Management, California State University, San

Bernardino, 5500 University Parkway, San Bernardino, CA

92407, USA



J Bus Ethics (2013) 113:415–428

DOI 10.1007/s10551-012-1312-8

Why Differentiate Top Leadership from Immediate

Did you find apk for android? You can find new and apps.

What Will You Get?

We provide professional writing services to help you score straight A’s by submitting custom written assignments that mirror your guidelines.

Premium Quality

Get result-oriented writing and never worry about grades anymore. We follow the highest quality standards to make sure that you get perfect assignments.

Experienced Writers

Our writers have experience in dealing with papers of every educational level. You can surely rely on the expertise of our qualified professionals.

On-Time Delivery

Your deadline is our threshold for success and we take it very seriously. We make sure you receive your papers before your predefined time.

24/7 Customer Support

Someone from our customer support team is always here to respond to your questions. So, hit us up if you have got any ambiguity or concern.

Complete Confidentiality

Sit back and relax while we help you out with writing your papers. We have an ultimate policy for keeping your personal and order-related details a secret.

Authentic Sources

We assure you that your document will be thoroughly checked for plagiarism and grammatical errors as we use highly authentic and licit sources.

Moneyback Guarantee

Still reluctant about placing an order? Our 100% Moneyback Guarantee backs you up on rare occasions where you aren’t satisfied with the writing.

Order Tracking

You don’t have to wait for an update for hours; you can track the progress of your order any time you want. We share the status after each step.


Areas of Expertise

Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.

Areas of Expertise

Although you can leverage our expertise for any writing task, we have a knack for creating flawless papers for the following document types.


Trusted Partner of 9650+ Students for Writing

From brainstorming your paper's outline to perfecting its grammar, we perform every step carefully to make your paper worthy of A grade.

Preferred Writer

Hire your preferred writer anytime. Simply specify if you want your preferred expert to write your paper and we’ll make that happen.

Grammar Check Report

Get an elaborate and authentic grammar check report with your work to have the grammar goodness sealed in your document.

One Page Summary

You can purchase this feature if you want our writers to sum up your paper in the form of a concise and well-articulated summary.

Plagiarism Report

You don’t have to worry about plagiarism anymore. Get a plagiarism report to certify the uniqueness of your work.

Free Features $66FREE

  • Most Qualified Writer $10FREE
  • Plagiarism Scan Report $10FREE
  • Unlimited Revisions $08FREE
  • Paper Formatting $05FREE
  • Cover Page $05FREE
  • Referencing & Bibliography $10FREE
  • Dedicated User Area $08FREE
  • 24/7 Order Tracking $05FREE
  • Periodic Email Alerts $05FREE

Our Services

Join us for the best experience while seeking writing assistance in your college life. A good grade is all you need to boost up your academic excellence and we are all about it.

  • On-time Delivery
  • 24/7 Order Tracking
  • Access to Authentic Sources
Academic Writing

We create perfect papers according to the guidelines.

Professional Editing

We seamlessly edit out errors from your papers.

Thorough Proofreading

We thoroughly read your final draft to identify errors.


Delegate Your Challenging Writing Tasks to Experienced Professionals

Work with ultimate peace of mind because we ensure that your academic work is our responsibility and your grades are a top concern for us!

Check Out Our Sample Work

Dedication. Quality. Commitment. Punctuality


It May Not Be Much, but It’s Honest Work!

Here is what we have achieved so far. These numbers are evidence that we go the extra mile to make your college journey successful.


Happy Clients


Words Written This Week


Ongoing Orders


Customer Satisfaction Rate

Process as Fine as Brewed Coffee

We have the most intuitive and minimalistic process so that you can easily place an order. Just follow a few steps to unlock success.

See How We Helped 9000+ Students Achieve Success


We Analyze Your Problem and Offer Customized Writing

We understand your guidelines first before delivering any writing service. You can discuss your writing needs and we will have them evaluated by our dedicated team.

  • Clear elicitation of your requirements.
  • Customized writing as per your needs.

We Mirror Your Guidelines to Deliver Quality Services

We write your papers in a standardized way. We complete your work in such a way that it turns out to be a perfect description of your guidelines.

  • Proactive analysis of your writing.
  • Active communication to understand requirements.

We Handle Your Writing Tasks to Ensure Excellent Grades

We promise you excellent grades and academic excellence that you always longed for. Our writers stay in touch with you via email.

  • Thorough research and analysis for every order.
  • Deliverance of reliable writing service to improve your grades.
Place an Order Start Chat Now