Assignment: ADHD In Abnormal Psychology

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Introduction

The topic that was most interesting and what my child deals with daily is learning how to live and cope with have ADHD. ADHD stands for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. ADHD is defined within he DSM classifications as having six or more symptoms of inattention for children between the ages of three to sixteen years of age, five or more symptoms for adolescents from the ages of seventeen and older. These symptoms must be present or have been present within the individual for at least six months. Some of the specific criteria for the underlying symptoms include:

· Having trouble or not paying attention or failing to give attention to details

· Make careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or with other activities.

· Often has trouble giving or holding attention on specific tasks,

· Often do not seem to listen when spoken to directly,

· Often loses things necessary for tasks (keys to the house, school work, books, etc)

· Easily distracted

· Often forgets to complete daily activities/chores (washing dishes, completing homework, getting paperwork signed or completed, etc)

ADHD is more common today than a few centuries ago, and many people are able to cope with everyday life, and the stress that comes along with it, which skipping a beat.

ADHD and its History

ADHD has been around for centuries, but many people did not know what why these symptoms occurred, or how to help someone overcome the challenges someone faced with this disorder. The first mention of such impairment was by a Scottish Physician by the name of Alexander Crichton in1798 (La Marca, J.,P. (2018). He noticed the correlation between educational attainment and the difficulties of attaining information over time. Since that first mention the scientific community has been able to identify, diagnosis, treat, and educate individuals and parents how to address and overcome this disorder without letting it define someone. It has been over 200 hundred years since Crichton first made mention of attention and its diseases. Over time people have come to understand and accept this disorder as it is common among many male adolescences today.

The second mention of ADHD was not until fifty years later when a German psychiatrist by the name Heinrich Hoffman wrote a children book called “Fidgety Phillip”, which was about an impulsive hyperactive child. This story gave people the first description of a child with symptoms of hyperactivity from a medical professional La Marca, J.,P. (2018).

Some of the causes of ADHD are from the mother and not taking proper care of oneself during pregnancy, other times it can be hereditary. The onset of ADHD can occur depending on how one is raised and the environment they are raised it. That can play a major impact on developing ADHD. Treatment for ADHD can vary from medications to psychotherapy. It has changed over time, as people thought that they had problem children that where uncontrollable and sought treatment in the form of therapy. It has also changed within the school environment as well. Many teachers are equipped to help students overcome learning issues, by finding ways to teach children in a way they find interesting and exciting.

Causes of ADHD

Attention Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is known to be a genetic disorder, but research shows that ADHD can occur in individuals in various ways other than genetics. One way to see if you are ADHD is to be diagnosed using a blood test to determine if you have the disorder. Another way to determine if someone is ADHD is to monitor behavior in and individual for a period of time. If that behavior is persistent for more the 6 months than a doctor will be able to determine by symptoms given if someone has ADHD.

Researchers show that there is no definite underlying factor to the causes of ADHD and why they occur. Many researchers show hereditary factors pasted from one parent to the children, other factors include an abusive household environment in which someone is exposed to. Other causes behind this disorder are lack of focus in areas of study that do not interest an individual that can cause someone to have symptoms but not the disorder of ADHD.

Children as early as two years of age start to show signs of ADHD, but it requires the parents to be able to notice the subtle changes within their children. Some symptoms of change are inclusion, constant fidgeting, or playing with odd objects that no one else desires or find interest in such as the arm of a barbie. Depending on how children grow up can cause them to become ADHD, depending are the area in which they live, the school they go to and their home life. Each can play an important factor on the causes of illness and how a child thrives in those situations.

In the early nineteenth century many children suffered from the plague, and the children that suffered had some effects from that which included brain damage. This was one of the very first signs of lack of focus in areas, or not being able to comprehend simple task with being told multiple times. Each of these causes can open the flood gates for these symptoms to arise, but we are prepared to overcome and conquer any disorder.

Treatment for ADHD

There are many different treatments today to help individuals cope with ADHD and being able to succeed in everyday life. Medication has shown to be the most effective for children during school hours, as it showed improvement with completing school work and also with homework, and daily chores. Each person is different and have different results with medication and with psychotherapy. The benefits that come with taking medication to help with ADHD include being able to stay on task, being able to complete and assignment in one sitting, being able to hold a conversation with getting easily side tracked, just to name a few.

Medication shows to be effective, but for some they choose to opt out of medications. In cases as such people use other coping methods for dealing with ADHD and that included therapy. With therapy it takes a village which include the parents, teachers, and peers to help with the behavioral therapy process. It is important for each person to be apart of the therapy process because it helps to keep the individual stay focused and on task.

The best and most effective treatment for ADHD is a combination of both medication and behavioral therapy. With both treatments people are able to have the best results as the data shows from a thirteen-year study, However as adolescence start to right maturity at the end of their high school career, the opt out and ultimately refuse to take medication, as they feel they have gotten better and no longer need it. Some adults eventually see that they need to the assistance with medication as they get older, as they are unable to focus on work, or daily life with a family, kids and the stress that comes along with it.

Prevention of ADHD

ADHD has little known history on the background of ADHD can truly develop in adolescent from the puberty to early adulthood. In some case’s many young women have been diagnosed with symptoms of ADHD have being in an abusive relationship with someone they were close to such as a friend, boyfriend, or relative. This is common for many young women. It is hard to be able to know how someone will treat you, because some people can put a mask on and make it feel like they have your best interest at heart. If young women are not put in situations that can cause them harm, their risk for ADHD is lowered tremendously.

Other ways to prevent ADHD is during pregnancy. Many things that we love to enjoy during pregnancy can led to the onset of ADHD. Some people are not a fan of smoking or second-hand smoke but smoking it very common in society today. When someone is pregnant it is important to follow guidelines that are prescribed by the doctor some of which include smoking, drinking, taking drugs, or other medications that can cause side effects in one’s offspring (Marceau, K., Cinnamon Bidwell, L., Karoly, H.C. et al. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2018). While you are unable to determine if I child have been affected during a pregnancy it is important to look for symptoms in children from the early age of two years of age until around five. Another cause for the onset of ADHD is caffeine. Caffeine during pregnancy it another leading cause for children with ADHD.

Cultural Differences and ADHD

Many changes can occur from one area to the next with the symptoms and treatment of ADHD. As with many disorders, or treatment, it has various effects depending on the area of which someone my live, and depending on how are far they can go to seek different treatment options. Different areas and cultures play a major factor on the diagnoses and treatment for ADHD. In Western culture ADHD is studied and treated with medication and therapy, were as in any other culture it is hardly studied. This raises many questions to understand ADHD, as it is mainly studied in one major Area. In a study done by Khaled Elsayed Ziada, David Becker, Salaheldin Farah Bakhiet, & Edward Dutton they break barriers between Western an Arabian population for this disorder, Within the study it showed that males are more the seventy five percent more likely to develop and be diagnosed with symptoms of ADHD.

In the article four cases where studied between four different cultures, which included Saud Arabia, Egypt, Germany, and the United States. The researchers have to take into account the past histories within the family, the religion, and region to help determine the cultural differences and diagnosing someone with ADHD. Many non-westernized cultures do not see the hyperactivity in children, as much or do not pay it as much attention and westernized cultures do. Any reason is due to the fact that many other cultures are not exposed to at food, fatty, or sugary food, that we are introduced to, or have grown accustom to over the years. That is one reason why you do not see many reports of children with ADHD. Just imagine having a child in a rural area art of the world, and being expose to different things in life, such as hunting, fishing, cooking at an early age due to the family dynamic and having to grow up faster that other children.

No matter where you live, there are people being born different each day, from one disorder to the next. It is important to study and record events of children at a young age in nonwestern countries to help with research on the causes and prevention o ADHD.

Biblical Worldview

We are all created in Gods image, and it is important to see ourselves in that life. No matter what someone might be diagnosed with it is important to see that the lord made use a certain way, and it can help others to accept themselves as they are made. With ADHD there is no back history into ADHD during biblical times. With the disorder of ADHD, it is caused by things that could be prevented in some ways and cases. ADHD can be cause from pregnant mothers eating excessive sugars and other things that are unhealthy to an unborn child. ADHD can also happen when someone is placed in a unsafe environment with family, or an abusive relationship, and other times is can be caused by a brain injury.

No matter how someone is diagnosed with ADHD they are able to get help with controlling their hyperactivity. Many people find help with a disorder with medication and therapy. Christians find help with the use and medication, therapy and prayer. It is important to stay in the word, no matter what you are going through, because it helps to keep the stress and worry away. Christians in modern society know the importance of getting help, because pray is not the only answer, but it is important to stay within the word. The treatment for ADHD is medication, but as Christians we try and things that are not as strong or that can cause us harm or addition to that medication over time. To help with trying to prevent future children from the disorder, individuals should find ways to help bring children into the world safely without harm or putting children in harms ways. That including not letting children find addictive sugary foods, keeping them on a healthy diet, and finding ways to keep them calm in various situations.

Conclusion

In conclusion the research on ADHD is still being researched, as it continues to develop. It is important to understand symptoms and diagnoses and be able to stay positive no matter what may think you of. ADHD is common in the westernized world, however in other countries some people either refuse to look at symptoms or they do not have the correct information to be properly diagnosed. Many children do not understand the meaning behind the diagnoses, until they reach adolescence, so it is important for parents to explain things to children in a way they are able to understand things as they grow. Many adolescences chose to stop medication as they reach into adulthood as they feel they no longer needed. It does not show until later adulthood that they still need some help to control hyperactivity and remained focused on task at work as they may be easily distracted. It is important to accept and overcome any disorder you may have and leave it to God. The lord never gives you more than you can handle, and it is important to trust in the Lord.

References

American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition. Arlington, VA., American Psychiatric Association, 2013. 

Leopold, D. R., Christopher, M. E., Burns, G. L., Becker, S. P., Olson, R. K., & Willcutt, E. G. (2016). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sluggish cognitive tempo throughout childhood: temporal invariance and stability from preschool through ninth grade. Journal Of Child Psychology And Psychiatry, And Allied Disciplines, 57(9), 1066–1074. 

La Marca, J.,P. (2018). Historical overview of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and neurofeedback: Implications for academic achievement, assessment, and intervention in schools. Contemporary School Psychology, 22(1), 1-17. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1007/s40688-017-0155-9

Yuan-Chang Hsu et al. “Family Structure, Birth Order, and Aggressive Behaviors Among School-Aged Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).” Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology. (2018): 1–10. Web.

van Hulst, B.,M., de Zeeuw, P., Vlaskamp, C., Rijks, Y., Zandbelt, B. B., & Durston, S. (2018). Children with ADHD symptoms show deficits in reactive but not proactive inhibition, irrespective of their formal diagnosis. Psychological Medicine, 48(15), 2515-2521. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1017/S0033291718000107

Hanna Christiansen, Oliver Hirsch, Anika König, Ricarda Steinmayr, Bernd Roehrle, (2015) “Prevention of ADHD related problems: a universal preschool program”, Health Education, Vol. 115 Issue: 3/4, pp.285-300, 

Marceau, K., Cinnamon Bidwell, L., Karoly, H.C. et al. J Abnorm Child Psychol (2018) 46: 685. 

Khaled Elsayed Ziada, David Becker, Salaheldin Farah Bakhiet, & Edward Dutton. (2018). Impulsivity among young adults: Differences between and within Western and Arabian populations in the BIS-11. Current Psychology : Research & Reviews., 1–10. 

Amanda L. Giordano, Elizabeth A. Prosek, Cynthia M. Daly, Jessica M. Holm, Zachary B. Ramsey and Meagan R. Abernathy

Journal of Counseling and Development. 93.1 (Jan. 2015)

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